martedì 10 gennaio 2017

STRUMENTI A CORDA





B. 1.           Anonymous violin probably made in Italy in 18th century and restored in 19th century. The instrument, in fact, shows the typical “modernisement” marked by the rise of the fingerboard and a restoration with the addition of two fir pieces on the side parts of the belly. The violin shows a beautiful varnish, the belly is made of fir while the ribs and the back, in two pieces and with a double purfling, are made of high quality maple. Its dimensions are: total length 594mm (23.4”); length of resonating chamber 359mm (14.15”); length of fingerboard 272mm (10.7”);  width of upper bout 187mm (7.35”); width of lower bout 201mm (7.9”); width of waist 109mm (4.3”); height of ribs 30mm (1.2”), 33mm (1.3”); vibrating length 327mm (12.85”); length F-holes 72mm (2.85”); minimum distance F-holes 42mm (1.65”); maximum distance F-holes 134mm (5.25”).

B. 2.           Anonymous French violin, second half of 18th century. Very refined selection of woods: the belly (restored twice) is made of spruce with thick and regular veining, and a double purfling on the border. The back, in a single piece, and the ribs (restored) are made of maple with average fiddleback and double purfling. The pegbox, the scroll and the neck are also made of maple with fiddleback. The fingerboard, the tailpiece and the pegs are made of ebony; the strings and the tailgut are made of gut. The varnish, high quality and well preserved, is original. Its dimensions are: total length 596mm (23.45”); length of resonating chamber 362mm (14.25”); length of fingerboard 273mm (10.75”);  width of upper bout 169mm (6.65”); width of lower bout 205mm (8.1”); width of waist 111mm (4.4”); height of ribs 29mm (1.15”), 31mm (1.2”); vibrating length 328mm (12.9”); length F-holes 72mm (2.85”); minimum distance F-holes 39mm (1.55”); maximum distance F-holes 131mm (5.15”).

B. 3.           Italian violin, ending of 18th century, made by the luthier Guseto. Nicola Guseto, Florentine luthier, worked in Cremona from 1785 to 1830, adopting German models and using selected woods. This instrument, very similar to the famous violin made by François Chanot (1788 Mirecourt - 1825 Rochefort) and recalled also by Utili at the end of 19th century, shows an unusual guitar shape, missing the beaks of the C-bouts, and the F-holes are in the shape of flames. The belly is made of fir with wide purfling, the back and the ribs are made of maple, the varnish is yellow, the scroll is very small but elegant and the fingerboard is ebonised. Its dimensions are: total length 598mm (23.55”); length of resonating chamber 364mm (14.35”); length of fingerboard 275mm (10.8”);  width of upper bout 168mm (6.6”); width of lower bout 205mm (8.05”); width of waist 106mm (4.15”); height of ribs 27mm (1.05”), 29mm (1.15”); vibrating length 331mm (13.05”); length flame F-holes 86mm (3.4”); minimum distance flame F-holes 53mm (2.1”); maximum distance flame F-holes 118mm (4.65”).

B. 4.           Neapolitan violin, first decade of 20th century, “Liuteria Fratelli Vinaccia fu Pasquale, fornitori della Real Casa d'Italy” (“Luthier’s shop Vinaccia brothers late Pasquale, supplier of the Royal House of Italy”), pegs, fingerboard and tailpiece made of ebony, back in two pieces and ribs made of maple, belly made of fir, double purfling on the belly and the back. Its dimensions are: total length 590mm (23.2”); length of resonating chamber 355mm (13.95”); length of fingerboard 274mm (10.8”);  width of upper bout 165mm (6.5”); width of lower bout 206mm (8.1”); width of waist 108mm (4.25”); height of ribs 28mm (1.1”), 30mm (1.2”); vibrating length 325mm (12.8”); length F-holes 72mm (2.85”); minimum distance F-holes 40mm (1.55”); maximum distance F-holes 133mm (5.25”).

B. 5.           Anonymous violin, made at the end of 19th century. The belly is made of fir with double purfling, the back (in two pieces) and the ribs are made in maple with subtle fiddelback, the fingerboard is made of ebony while the pegs, the tailpiece, and the end button are made of rosewood. Its dimensions are: total length 594mm (23.4”); length of resonating chamber 361mm (14.2”); length of fingerboard 272mm (10.7”);  width of upper bout 167mm (6.55”); width of lower bout 206mm (8.1”); width of waist 108mm (4.25”); height of ribs 32mm (1.25”), 33mm (1.3”); vibrating length 332mm (13.05”); length F-holes 71mm (2.8”); minimum distance F-holes 41mm (1.6”); maximum distance F-holes 125mm (4.9”).

B. 6.           German violin, typical Tyrolean make, very high at the soundpost, probably made in mid 18th century. Later, like a lot of the instruments of this time, it was subjected to the change of the neck which might date back to mid 19th century. The varnish in some points is highly worn out, but the sound is still good. The back and the ribs are made of maple, the belly is made of fir, the fingerboard, the pegs, and the tailpiece are made of ebony. Its dimensions are: total length 584mm (23”); length of resonating chamber 354mm (13.95”); length of fingerboard 272mm (10.7”);  width of upper bout 160mm (6.3”); width of lower bout 207mm (8.15”); width of waist 105mm (4.15”); height of ribs 27mm (1.05”), 28mm (1.1”); vibrating length 328mm (12.9”); length F-holes 74mm (2.9”); minimum distance F-holes 45mm (1.75”); maximum distance F-holes 118mm (4.65”).

B. 7.           German violin, the title block bears the caption: Aug. Clemens Glier / Musikinstrumenten Fabrik / Markneukirchen i. S. This luthier operated between the end of the 19th century and 1939 in Imosanstrasse, Martneukirchen. Very worn varnish, belly made of high quality fir with wide purfling, pronounced beaks of the C-bouts, back in two maple pieces, high ribs, pegbox with thin sides, tailpiece, pegs, and fingerboard made of ebony. Its dimensions are: total length 593mm (23.35”); length of resonating chamber 361mm (14.2”); length of fingerboard 273mm (10.75”);  width of upper bout 172mm (6.75”); width of lower bout 211mm (8.3”); width of waist 106mm (4.15”); height of ribs 33mm (1.29”), 34mm (1.33”); vibrating length 332mm (13.05”); length F-holes 72mm (2.85”); minimum distance F-holes 40mm (1.55”); maximum distance F-holes 128mm (5.05”).

B. 8.           Italian violin, middle of 19th century in Stradivarius-like shape, the belly is made of fir with wide internal purfling, back in two pieces and ribs made of maple; on the back there is a picture of a fluvial city (Cremona?) and figures on a boat; short neck, fingerboard made of ebony. Its dimensions are: total length 593mm (23.35”); length of resonating chamber 360mm (14.15”); length of fingerboard 272mm (10.7”);  width of upper bout 168mm (6.6”); width of lower bout 208mm (8.2”); width of waist 109mm (4.3”); height of ribs 32mm (1.25”), 33mm (1.3”); vibrating length 328mm (12.9”); length F-holes 77mm (3.05”); minimum distance F-holes 39mm (1.55”); maximum distance F-holes 129mm (5.05”).

B. 9.           Viola, datable to the second decade of 20th century; title block bearing the caption: Ernst Heinrich Roth / Bubenreuth Erlangen / Josef Guarnerius. This luthier (1877-1948), son of Gustav Robert who was luthier in Markneukirchen, in 1902 opened a workshop and started to make string instruments with great mastery so that he became the best German luthier of the early 20th century. The instrument, with dimensions of a Guarneri, has the belly made of fir, wide purfling, the ribs and the back in two pieces made of maple, the fingerboard, the nut, and the contour of the nose made of ebony. Its dimensions are: total length 669mm (26.35”); length of resonating chamber 407mm (16”); length of fingerboard 310mm (12.2”);  width of upper bout 197mm (7.75”); width of lower bout 238mm (9.35”); width of waist 127mm (5”); height of ribs 37mm (1.45”), 38mm (1.5”); vibrating length 369mm (14.5”); length F-holes 92mm (3.6”); minimum distance F-holes 50mm (1.95”); maximum distance F-holes 153mm (6”).

B. 10.        Tenor viola da braccio, Italian. The title block bears the writing: IOSEPH NADOTTI FECIT / PLACENTIÆ 1789. Giuseppe Nadotti, luthier from Piacenza, operating until 1790, made excellent-make instruments inspired by Amati’s models. The tenor viola da braccio, for range and tuning, places itself in an intermediate position between cello and viola, and it was used as fourth voice in five-voices scores (first violins, second violins, viola da braccio, tenor viola da braccio, cello). This instrument, equipped with four gut strings, has a tenor-like worm and strong sound. The belly is made of spruce with thick and regular veining and two courses of double purfling. The ribs and the back (in two pieces), with two courses of double purfling too, are made of maple with faint fiddleback, the varnish is yellow. The neck and the scroll are made of maple without fiddleback, the fingerboard is made of ebony, and the tailpiece is made of ebonised wood, while the metal endpin is modern. Its dimensions are: total length 945mm (37.2”); length of resonating chamber 504mm (19.85”); length of fingerboard 458mm (18.05”);  width of upper bout 287mm (11.3”); width of lower bout 239mm (9.4”); width of waist 167mm (6.55”); height of ribs 46mm (1.8”), 48mm (1.9”); vibrating length 552mm (21.75”); length F-holes 94mm (3.7”); minimum distance F-holes 61mm (2.4”); maximum distance F-holes 184mm (7.25”).

B. 11.        Cello from German lutherie, probably made in around 1870. The belly is made of fir and shows a crack on the left side, perfectly restored. The back, in two pieces, and the ribs are made of maple; the fingerboard and the tailpiece are made of ebony. Every part is original but the varnish, renewed during the restoration. Its sound is particularly strong and warm, especially the basses. It shows a title block with the caption: ANTONIO STRADIVARIUS. Its dimensions are: total length 1231mm (48.45”); length of resonating chamber 762mm (30”); length of fingerboard 602mm (23.7”);  width of upper bout 347mm (13.65”); width of lower bout 444mm (17.5”); width of waist 244mm (9.6”); height of ribs 114mm (4.5”), 119mm (4.9”); vibrating length 692mm (27.25”).

B. 12.        Hungarian cello, 7/8 dimensions, made in 1912, the title block reports the writing: Braun Antal Hangszerkészítő Temesvár Belváros (luthier Braun Antal operating in the centre of Temesvár).  Temesvár or Timișoara nowadays is located in Transylvania (Romania), but till 1918 it was a Hungarian region. The fingerboard is ebonised, the pegs and the tailpiece are made of ebony, the back in two pieces and the ribs are made of maple, the belly is made of solid fir. Its dimensions are: total length 1138mm (44.8”); length of resonating chamber 672mm (26.45”); length of fingerboard 546mm (21.5”);  width of upper bout 328mm (12.9”); width of lower bout 423mm (16.65”); width of waist 218mm (8.6”); height of ribs 109mm (4.3”), 114mm (4.5”); vibrating length 636mm (25.05”).

B. 13.        Hungarian double bass, 19th century, manufacture from Szeged, luthier Butor Vallalat, ebonised fingerboard, back and ribs with planking on the borders, belly made in solid fir; originally with four strings, it was reduces with three strings in order to play folk music, original strings made of gut.

B. 15.        Mute violin, Italy, late 19th century, ebonised fingerboard, back, belly, and ribs made of fir, vague shape of a conical frustum, with two little gaps in the lateral boards and a T-shaped sound box.

B. 16.        Stroh violin, early 20th century, anonymous, made from a violin missing the sound box, substituted by a central body on which the bridge and the chinrest lie. The central body transmits the sound to a resonator, arranged under the central body and connected to a brass horn, parallel to the neck, which amplify the sounds. The neck, the body, and the chinrest are made of maple, while the pegs, the fingerboard, and the tailpiece are made of ebonised wood. It is one of the violins used in the period of the first phonographic recording (the horn was used to direct the sound towards the horn of the recording devise) and its name is after Charles Stroh, the Londoner who invented it in 1901.

B. 17.        Jap Stroh fiddle (phono-fidle), early 20th century. This instrument, used for the first phonographic recordings, is made of a fingerboard with a single string, with vibrating length measuring 63mm (2.5”), at the lower end there are two wings used to hold the instruments between the legs while, under the bridge, there is a membrane and a resonator, connected to a brass horn, parallel to the neck, amplifying the sounds. On the resonator there is the caption: TRADE MARK. PHONO-FIDLE / A. S. HOMSON / REG. NO. 287991. On the horn there is the number 21, on the neck is carved: DOUGLAS & Co / 7 SOTH ST. / LONDON E.C / REGD N0 423256. This instrument was generally tuned on the D3 (that is a tone higher than the middle C, corresponding to the third string on the violin). The aim was to create a very efficient soprano on the melodic execution (and also very easy, considering that it has a single string).

B. 18.        Five string violin, sort of little viola da gamba played like a violin. The title block has the caption: Emanuel Hüller, / Musik – instrumentenerzeugung / GRASLITZ, Kirchplatz 790 / (Böhmen.). This luthier, together with other three members of his family, operated in Graslitz, now Kraslice, till early 20th century also making woodwind instruments. Fir belly, the C-bouts don’t have the lower beak, so that the instrument looks like a guitar in its lower bout, the F-holes show a square hole in the centre near the bridge, back in two pieces, the ribs and the neck are made of maple, fingerboard made of ebony. The pegbox is very unusual, with five machineries in the place of the pegs; instead of the scroll, there is a carved lion head. Its dimensions are: total length 587mm (23.1”); length of resonating chamber 357mm (14.05”); length of fingerboard 288mm (11.35”);  width of upper bout 184mm (7.25”); width of lower bout 208mm (8.2”); width of waist 106mm (4.15”); height of ribs 31mm (1.2”), 32mm (1.25”); vibrating length 334mm (13.15”); length F-holes 76mm (3”); minimum distance F-holes 41mm (1.6”); maximum distance F-holes 125mm (4.9”).

B. 19.        Cello having an inner title block with the caption: Giov Battista Fabricatore fecit / Anno 1777 in S.M. dell’Ajuto / Napoli. The belly is made of fir with double purfling and it presents a crack on the left side, perfectly restored. The back, in a single piece, and the ribs are made of maple, the fingerboard and the tailpiece are made of ebony, the varnish is reddish-brown. The endpin is not original. Dimensions: total length 1234mm (48.6”); length of resonating chamber 762mm (30”); length of fingerboard 691mm (27.2”);  width of upper bout 351mm (13.8”); width of lower bout 441mm (17.35”); width of waist 247mm (9.7”); height of ribs 130mm (5.1”), 131mm (5.15”); vibrating length 608mm (23.95”); length F-holes 142mm (5.6”); minimum distance F-holes 104mm (4.1”); maximum distance F-holes 252mm (9.9”).

B. 20.        French little cello having an inner title block with the caption: medal / Jerome Thibouville Lamy 1905 / Luthiers / 72 Rue Risaumur / Paris. The belly is made of fir with a double purfling, the back, in two pieces, and the ribs are made of maple, the fingerboard and the pegs are mare of walnut, the tailpiece is made of ebony. The varnish is reddish-brown. On the back there is a very considerable old restoration. The instrument is particular for its dimensions: total length 1023mm (40.25”); length of resonating chamber 627mm (24.7”); length of fingerboard 506mm (19.9”);  width of upper bout 285mm (11.2”); width of lower bout 368mm (14.5”); width of waist 204mm (8.05”); height of ribs 114mm (4.5”), 116mm (4.55”); vibrating length 586mm (23.05”); length F-holes 112mm (4.4”); minimum distance F-holes 86mm (3.4”); maximum distance F-holes 196mm (7.7”).

B. 21.        Italian anonymous violin, made at the end of 19th century. The belly is made of fir with double purfling, the beck (in two pieces) and the ribs are made of maple with fiddleback, the fingerboard and the tailpiece are made of rosewood. The total length is 595mm (23.4”), the resonating chamber is 361mm (14.2”), maximum width 203mm (8”), minimum width 166mm (6.55”), fingerboard 269mm (10.6”), ribs 32mm (1.25”), 33mm (1.3”), length F-holes 56mm (2.2”), minimum distance F-holes 50mm (1.95”), maximum distance F-holes 124mm (4.9”), diapason 322mm (12.65”).

B. 22.        French viola d’amore made by Eduard Laube in early 19th century inspired by violas d’amore made by Mathias Griesser in 1727. This luthier, German by birth, moved to Mirecourt and became one of the most esteemed luthier of his time. The instrument is equipped with five playing strings, made of metal, and six sympathetic strings, in several materials (two made of copper, two of steel, two of gold). Every string starts from a peg in the long pegbox. The playing strings follow the normal path while the resonance ones pass under the fingerboard, cross the bridge passing through specific holes under the upper edge and end with six fine tuners fixed on the lower end of the instrument. The belly is made of fir, the flat back and the ribs are made of maple while the fingerboard is made of ebony. The sound box has a shape with volutes and a convexity between the beaks of the C-bouts, the sound holes are F-shaped and there is a little carved rosette at the lower edge of the fingerboard. The instrument is 803mm (31.6”) long, 276mm (10.85”) wide, the ribs are 46mm (1.8”) and 60mm (2.35”) high, diapason 369mm (14.5”). On the back is branded the writing: E. LAUBE.

B. 24.        Tuners with metal screw datable between the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century. The first contained in a metal case measuring 42mm (1.65”) emits the note A, the second contained in a metal case measuring 37mm (1.45”) emits the note A, the third contained in a metal case measuring 42mm (1.65”) emits the note A, the fourth is made of four cylinders emitting the notes G, D, A, E, the fifth has on the top a semicircular machinery on which is carved every note that, rotating, stops the screw at various pitches, emitting the chromatic scale.

B. 25.        Bows datable between 19th and 20th century. The first is a double bass bow of the 19th century, with German handle, 660mm (26”) long, folk manufacture. The second is a double bass bow of the 19th century, equipped with black horsehair, 635mm (25”) long, the stick is made of brazilwood, the frog made of ebony and “eyes” of mother of pearl. The third is a cello bow, stick made of pale wood, frog of ebony, “eyes” of mother of pearl, ebony screw, leather pad, 715mm (28.15”) long. The fourth is a cello bow, stick made of pale wood, frog of ebony, “eyes” of mother of pearl, nickel screw, cotton pad, 698mm (27.5”) long. The fifth is a cello bow, stick made of pale wood with octagonal section, frog of ebony with “eyes” of mother of pearl, screw of nickel, leather pad, 727mm (28.6”) long. The sixth is a viola bow, modest manufacture, stick made of pale wood varnished red, frog of ebony, brass screw, leather pad, equipped with black horsehair, 681mm (26.8”) long. The seventh is a violin bow, stick made of dark wood, frog of ebony with “eyes” made of mother of pearl, nickel screw, leather pad, 721mm (28.4”) long. The eighth is a violin bow, stick made of dark wood, frog of ebony with “eyes” made of mother of pearl, screw of nickel and ebony, pad of leather and metal, 726mm (28.6”) long. The ninth is a violin bow, stick made of dark wood with octagonal section, frog of pale wood with “eyes” made of mother of pearl, screw of nickel and ebony, pad of lather and copper, 733mm (28.85”) long. The tenth is a violin bow, stick made of dark wood, frog of ebony with “eyes” made of mother of pearl, screw of nickel and ebony, 717mm (28.2”) long. The eleventh is a violin bow, stick made of dark wood with octagonal section, frog of ebony, screw of nickel, without horsehair, 724mm (28.5”) long. The twelfth is a violin bow, stick made of dark wood with octagonal section, frog of ebony with “eyes” made of mother of pearl, screw of nickel and ebony, without horsehair, 731mm (28.75”) long. The thirteenth is a violin bow, stick made of red wood with octagonal section, frog of ebony with “eyes” made of mother of pearl, screw of nickel and ebony, without horsehair, 722mm (28.4”) long. The fourteenth is a violin bow, stick made of red wood, frog of ebony with “eyes” made of mother of pearl, screw of nickel and ebony, metal pad, 586mm (23.05”) long. The fifteenth is a violin bow, stick made of red wood, frog of ebony with “eyes” made of mother of pearl, nickel screw, pad of lather and metal, 536mm (21.1”) long. The sixteenth is an ukelin bow, stick made of pale wood painted red, frog of ebony with “eyes” made of mother of pearl, nickel screw, metal pad, 448mm (17.65”) long.

B. 26.        Mutes for violin made between the end of 19th century and the first half of 20th century. The small collection is made of eighteen mutes, nine made of ebony, five of metal, two of Bakelite, one of pear wood and one of leather.

B. 28.        Italian violin having an inner title block with the caption: Joannes Franciscus Celoniatus / fecit Taurini Anno 1734. Giovanni Francesco Celoniato (1702 - 1750) worked in Turin from 1730 to 1750, apprentice of Giofredo Cappa (1644-1717), stood out for the choice of woods (maple, but also poplar and field maple) and for the care of the production. The instrument shows the typical “modernisement” consisting of the rise of the fingerboard with the addition of a wooden wedge and the approaching of the bass bar. The belly is made of spruce with double purfling and closed C-bouts, ribs and back (a single piece) are made of maple with fiddleback, fingerboard, pegs and tailpiece of ebony. Its dimensions are: total length 594mm (23.4”); length of resonating chamber 354mm (13.95”); length of fingerboard 275mm (10.8”);  width of upper bout 166mm (6.55”); width of lower bout 198mm (7.8”); width of waist 111mm (4.35”); height of ribs 31mm (1.2”), 32mm (1.25”); vibrating length 330mm (13”); length F-holes 66mm (2.6”); minimum distance F-holes 50mm (1.95”); maximum distance F-holes 117mm (4.6”).

B. 29.        Pochette of viola d’amore, folk make, datable to the end of 18th century, probably French. The instrument is made of lime wood in a single block carved inside, therefore without ribs. The total length is 538mm (21.2”), diapason 288mm (11.35”). The scroll is unfinished, bill-like, nut made of bone, pegbox with eight pegs, four for the playing strings and four for the sympathetic strings that pass under the fingerboard. The little bridge (not original, like the tailpiece) lies between two approximate F-holes, the playing strings are made of gut, and the sympathetic strings are made of metal, the pegs are made of rosewood.

B. 30.        Violin with inner title block having the writing: ANTONIUS BRAUN / FABRICANT DE INSTRUMENTE MUSICALE / TEMESVARINI ANNO 1930. Anton Braun (1877-1927) started his luthier activity in 1896 in Temesvár / Temeswar (now Timișoara), Austro-Hungarian city. He learnt the art from his father and his older brother (Johannes) in the workshop founded by C. W. Richter in 1867 in Szeged. When he died in 1928 his son Anton Michael Braun (1911-1978) took over the enterprise, later (starting from 1958), he only made saxophones. The belly is made of fir with double purfling, the back (in two pieces) and the ribs are made of maple with fiddleback, the fingerboard and the tailpiece are made of rosewood. On the case there is a label with the caption: A. BRAUN / FABRICANT DE INSTRUMENTE MUSICALE / TIMIŞOARA (CETATE).

B. 33.        Tenor arm viola, Italian, anonymous, of rather popular bill, probably built in the first half of the nineteenth century along the Alps and later renovated in the early twentieth century. The morphological features of this instrument are typical of the Italian arm viola: down slightly domed, bands not very high, rounded shoulders, joined to the handle at an acute angle, soundboard and bottom with protruding edges and corners, longitudinal inner chain, holes in ff, narrow handle, relatively thick ropes in number of 4, full and round sound, tailpiece knotted with a catgut rope to the button in which there is the hole for the tip fixed at the bottom of the instrument. The tenor viola was played resting on the right shoulder but, being an awkward position, more often was held between the legs. The belly is in spruce while the back and sides are in Maple, the keyboard is ebonized wood and painted and the paint is rather dark and heavy. Its dimensions are: total length 921 mm; chest length 559 mm; key length 415 mm; width cash part sup. 248 mm; width of cash inf. 315 mm; width chest indentations 165 mm; bands height 63 mm, 85 mm; vibrating length 525 mm; effe length 115 mm; effe minimum distance 75 mm; effe maximum distance mm 185. The tuning is an octave lower than the violin (G, D, A, E).

B. 34.        Ebonized wood conductor's baton with three silver inserts with floral decorations at the tip, center and head. The punches of the head date the wand to 1923 in London while on the central ring are the initials F. D. likely those of the director to whom it was donated. The total length is mm. 461 with a diameter at the head of mm. 20 and 7 at the tip.

C. 1.           Anonymous French guitar, probably from Mirecourt school, operating in France from the second half of 18th century. The instrument, with a typical eighteenth-century appearance, has a sounding board in a single piece made of fir with ebony purflings, five around the sound hole and three on the contour. The back, in two pieces, and the ribs are made of maple, the fingerboard, the head and the tuning pegs are made of ebony, and the neck of walnut. The head, eight-shaped as typical, is fixed to the neck with a V-shaped insertion. The sound board continue on the neck and has six metal frets, while the fingerboard, on the same level than the sound board, has eleven frets. The three buttons for the belt, the end of the heel, the top of the bridge, and the pegs are made of ivory. The pegs have on their heads a mother-of-pearl decoration. Measures: total length 940mm (37”); neck length 427mm (16.8”); width of upper bout 209mm (8.2”); width of lower bout 270mm (10.6”); width of waist 158mm (6.2”); height of ribs 66mm (2.6”), 78mm (3.05”); vibrating length 648mm (25.5”); diameter of sound hole 82mm (3.2”).

C. 2.           Neapolitan guitar. The inner title block has the caption: Gennaro Fabricatore / anno1820 Napoli / Strada S. Giacomo N 42. The sound board is made of fir and shows a rich ebony floral decoration on the lower bout, while the sound hole, the border, and the contour of the fingerboard are beautified by a quadruple alternated purfling of ebony and whalebone. Back and ribs of maple with fiddleback; the fingerboard, made of ebony, continue embedded in the sound board for the last eight frets. The neck and the head are veneered with ebony, there are 19 brass frets and an ivory strap pin, the bridge and the pegs are not original. Dimensions: total length 941mm (37.05”); length of body 457mm (18”); neck length 308mm (12.1”); width of upper bout 225mm (8.85”); width of lower bout 298mm (11.75”); width of waist 167mm (6.55”); height of ribs 85mm (3.35”), 104mm (4.1”); vibrating length 645mm (25.4”); diameter of sound hole 80mm (3,15”).

C. 3.           Lombard anonym guitar, end of 18th century. The head, eight-shaped as typical, and the neck are ebonised; the pegs are made of ebony. The head is fixed to the neck with a ┌┐-shaped insertion; the fingerboard, ebonised, has 19 brass frets. The back, in a single piece, and the ribs are made of maple, the sound board, in a single piece, is made of spruce with a triple dark purfling also repeated around the sound hole and the fingerboard. Measures: total length 908mm (35.75”); body length 434mm (17.1”); neck length 305mm (12”); width of upper bout 238mm (9.35”); width of lower bout 298mm (11.75”); width of waist 175mm (6.9”); height of ribs 64mm (2.5”), 79mm (3.1”); vibrating length 608mm (23.95”); diameter of sound hole 76mm (3”).

C. 4.           Italian anonymous guitar, Lombard-Venetian area, end of 18th century, sound board in a single piece made of spruce with quadruple purfling on the border and around the sound hole having a mother-of-pearl decoration around it. The back, in a single piece with an old and considerable restoration, and the ribs are made of maple. The eight-shaped head, fixed to the neck with a V-shaped insertion, the fingerboard, with 18 metal frets, and the neck are made of ebonised rosewood; the pegs are made of ebony. Measures: total length 882mm (34.7”); body length 430mm (16.9”); neck length 309mm (12.15”); width of upper bout 230mm (9.05”); width of lower bout 299mm (11.75”); width of waist 169mm (6.65”); height of ribs 69mm (2.7”), 78mm (3.05”); vibrating length 606mm (23.85”); diameter of sound hole 78mm (3.05”).

C. 5.           Nine-stringed guitar, Italian, mid 19th century. The inner title block has the caption: Fabbrica / d’istrumenti da corda / Pasquale Rutigliano / Corato. Neck and head made of walnut, screw pegs, nut of bone, 17 metal frets, back in two pieces, ribs and sound board of fir, black leather decorations applied on the lower bout, while around the neck and the sound hole the decorations are painted with black ink. This instrument is a unique example of Apulian folk lutherie. The strings are nine; the first three are made of courses of two strings tuned at the octave, while the playing strings are single. The machinery is particular: it is a machinery of a chitarra battente (with ten strings), so that one peg was unused. Another peculiarity was the presence of a counter-rib (walnut?) on the upper part of the rib. Dimensions: total length 932mm (36.7”); length of body 441mm (17.35”); neck length 306mm (12.05”); width of upper bout 243mm (9.55”); width of lower bout 305mm (12”); width of waist 155mm (6.1”); height of ribs 79mm (3.1”), 90mm (3.55”); vibrating length 632mm (24.9”); diameter of sound hole 84mm (3.3”).

C. 6.           Apulian guitar, last decade of 19th century, title block with the caption: “Fabbrica di strumenti musicali a corda / Vito Garganese fu Vito / di Monopoli”. Back in a single piece and ribs of field maple, prominently eight-shaped, sound board made of fir, neck of field maple, ebonised fingerboard with 18 frets and mother-of-pearl decoration, restored machinery. The woods show a very dark staining. Dimensions: total length 968mm (38.1”); length of body 465mm (18.3”); neck length 317mm (12.5”); width of upper bout 263mm (10.35”); width of lower bout 345mm (13.6”); width of waist 205mm (8.05”); height of ribs 84mm (3.3”), 92mm (3.6”); vibrating length 642mm (25.25”); diameter of sound hole 84mm (3.3”).

C. 7.           Apulian guitar, made in 1927, the title block has the caption: FABBRICA DI STRUMENTI MUSICALI A CORDA / Premiata all'Esposizione di Torino 1898 / VITO GARGANESE FU VITO / MONOPOLI (Italia) / signature 1927. Back in a single piece and ribs made of maple with fiddleback, sound board of fir with triple purfling, neck made of rosewood. Fingerboard made of rosewood with 18 frets and decorations of mother of pearl, butterfly-shaped original machinery made of bone. Dimensions: total length 918mm (36.15”); length of body 437mm (17.2”); neck length 309mm (12.15”); width of upper bout 235mm (9.25”); width of lower bout 299mm (11.75”); width of waist 155mm (6.1”); height of ribs 75mm (2.95”), 86mm (3.4”); vibrating length 625mm (24.6”); diameter of sound hole 85mm (3.35”).

C. 8.           Italian guitar, mid 19th century, neck and head are ebonised, screw pegs, 18 metal frets, back in two pieces and ribs made of maple, sound board of spruce with decorations of mother of pearl.

C. 9.           Sicilian guitar, about 1860, luthier Giuseppe Puglisi, progenitor of the most famous family of luthiers from Catania. Neck and head are ebonised, screw pegs, ivory nut, 17 metal frets, bone pins, back and ribs of maple, sound board made of spruce with purfling and mother of pearl. The inner title block, circular, has the caption: casa ….. Sicilia Giuseppe Puglisi with the symbol of an eagle in the centre. Dimensions: total length 940mm (37”); length of body 443mm (17.45”); neck length 306mm (12.05”); width of upper bout 244mm (9.6”); width of lower bout 307mm (12.1”); width of waist 172mm (6.75”); height of ribs 69mm (2.7”), 69mm (2.7”); vibrating length 604mm (23.75”); diameter of sound hole 70mm (2.75”).

C. 10.        Sicilian guitar, the inner title block shows the writing: G. PUGLISI-REALE & FIGLI / STRUMENTI MUSICALI A CORDA / PRIMO STABILIMENTO ITALIANO / bee in a circle / PER LA FBBRICAZIONE DI / STRUMENTI MUSICALI A CORDA / CATANIA. The sound board is made of fir and shows a rich decoration of ebony and avoriolina on the borders and around the sound hole, the bridge is made of carved wood and there is a rich decoration in the shape of a butterfly made of tortoiseshell, mother of pearl, and avoriolina under the sound hole. On the sound board there is also the brand in the shape of an oval. The back, in two pieces, and the ribs are made of rosewood. The neck and the head are ebonised and the fingerboard has 18 brass frets.

C. 11.        Flamenco guitar, Spanish, made by the Ibáñez enterprise in the last quarter of 19th century. The inner title block shows the caption: illegible part ANO / SALVADOR IBANEZ / BAJADA Sn.  Francisco / 23 VALENCIA (ESP) / SERIE N°. Typical folk Spanish instrument for flamenco with very high ribs, wide fingerboard with 18 metal frets and very pronounced shape of an eight. Sound board of fir, motifs made of black ink around the sound hole, back and ribs of maple, head of walnut, nut of bone and machinery with pegs. Dimensions: total length 930mm (36.1”); length of body 445mm (17.5”); neck length 328mm (12.9”); width of upper bout 242mm (9.5”); width of lower bout 302mm (11.9”); width of waist 200mm (7.85”); height of ribs 88mm (3.45”), 92mm (3.6”); vibrating length 635mm (25”); diameter of sound hole 79mm (3.1”).

C. 12.        Spanish six-stringed guitar made during the second half of 19th century and imported in Italy. Sound board of fir, back and ribs of maple, head of walnut and machinery with pegs. The inner title block has the caption: Maccolini – Viscardo / via Cesare Correnti, 7 Milano / speciali - musica popolare / cetre, mandolini, chitarre violini / corde armoniche / ocarine, accessori, ecc. For the good make of the instrument and the dimensions, that are lightly reduced, it can be attributed to Torres or Pages, the machineries are butterfly-shaped, type Aguado. The instrument has a sound board made of fir and a rich floral decoration around the sound hole, the back and the ribs are made of maple. The fingerboard, made of ebony, is the only non-original part because it has been restored by luthier Pio Montanari from Genova.

C. 13.        Anonymous guitar, the body is probably Spanish, made in the area of Valencia during the second decade of 20th century (Andres Martin?) while the neck seems German. The instrument has the back, in two pieces, and the ribs made of rosewood, the sound board of high quality fir, having regular and thick veining, is decorated with a triple white purfling, the bridge has been made later. The sound hole is surrounded with two triple purflings made of dark wood. Between them there is a nice decoration made of mother of pearl. The machinery has bone butterflies while the neck is made of walnut and shows 17 frets that, on the sound board, are only present for the acute strings.

C. 14.        German guitar, end of 19th century, on the sound board there is the branded caption “SONORA”. Back in two pieces and ribs of  maple, sound board of fir without the usual sound hole, but with two opening in a vague shape of F-holes, neck and head (inserted in the neck at the level of the second fret) of walnut, 18 metal frets. The unusual shape of the sound board underlines the research of new sonorities, typical of an experimentalism later widely used in the making of jazz guitars, that tried to mix violin and guitar shapes. Dimensions: total length 918mm (36.15”); length of body 451mm (17.75); length of neck 312mm (12.3”); width of upper bout 229mm (9”); width of lower bout 305mm (12”); width of waist 198mm (7.8”); height of the ribs 70mm (2.75”), 76mm (3”); vibrating length 605mm (23.8”); height of F-hole 96mm (3.75”).

C. 15.        Guitar, Germany 1920, having on the head a little plaque with the name of the maker: EDMUND PAULUS, Markneukirchen. Back in two pieces and ribs of maple, sound board made of fir with triple ebony purfling, circular sound hole with quadruple purfling. The head, the neck, and the fingerboard, with 18 metal frets, are made of ebonised wood.

C. 16.        German guitar, anonymous, with on the head a brass plate with the name of the Swiss vendor: W. Fischer / Musikhaus / CHUR. The instrument, made in the first half of 20th century, shows a sound board made of fir; back, ribs, neck, and head of maple covered with a yellow varnish; fingerboard of rosewood with 18 metal frets.

C. 17.        Argentinian guitar Nuñez, made in Buenos Aires in 1927 ca. The inner title block, in style of Art Nouveau, is very ruined, we can distinguish the writing Antigua Fàbrica../..de oro../..vue../ Para../ j music../ DE TODA CLAS../ 1431 CALLE.. / Buenos Aires../Imp. P. Milano corrientes 1040. The Nuñez manufacturer, founded by Francisco in 1858, is the most important Argentinian factory of guitars and accessories. It has been awarded several times and has published some guitar scores too. The shape of the body is on Spanish model, with back and ribs of high quality maple and the sound board of fir with a nice marquetry around the border of the sound hole. Around the sound hole there is a decoration made of ebony and mother of pearl. The fingerboard is ebonised and has 18 metal frets. The case is original while the bridge and the machinery are not.

C. 18.        Ukulele, folk Spanish four-stringed guitar, first half of 20th century. The total dimensions are 550mm (21.65”) while the body is 250mm (9.85”). The title block has the caption: ANTIGUA FABRICA / de GUITARRAS / FUNDADA EN 1890 / DE / José Serratosa / ANCHA 50 BARCELONA / Especialidad en Guitarras / con mango desmontable. This manufacturer, founded by José Serratosa Blanch, operated in Barcelona from 1890 to 1930. The back (in 2 pieces) and the ribs are made of rosewood, the sound board of fir, neck and head of walnut, rosewood fingerboard with 18 frets. The four pegs are violin pegs.

C. 19.        Lute-guitar with drones, Nuremberg, Germany, luthier August Schultz, made on July 7th, 1909 for Mr. Carl Wallendo, opera singer in Kiel, second head made of carved wood with a head of a woman, neck of rosewood, bridge and fingerboard of ebony, undulating-hollowed frets, 11 staves of maple, sound board of fir.

C. 20.        German guitar-lute with drones, beginning of 20th century. The box, lute-shaped, is made of 11 staves of maple separated by ebony purfling. The sound board is made of fir with rosewood purfling, and shows the writing Goldberg, the central rosette is made of six pentagons, imbricate one another, and floral decorations. The fingerboard, of ebony, presents 8 undulating-hollowed frets, while other 6 metal frets are on the board. The machinery is made of bone and the second head, with three drone strings, has a four-leaf-clover-shaped cymatium on the top.

C. 21.        Mandora, guitar imitating lute, deriving from gallicone. Germany, first decades of 20th century, title block with the caption: MIGMA / Vogtländische Qualitätsarheit / Meister W. Gessinger. Sound board made of fir with ivory and ebony purfling, fingerboard of rosewood with 9 undulating-hollowed frets, and 5 frets on the board, bowlback with 11 staves of varnished maple, sickle-shaped head.

C. 22.        Guitar-lute, German, anonymous, first half of 20th century. This instrument has the neck of a guitar and the body strongly pyriform as lutes have. The sound board is of fir with avorite purfling, the sound hole shows a rich carved rosette in the shape of vine shoot and leaves and the back is made of 11 staves of maple with pale varnish. The pegbox is long and narrow and ends with a head of a woman. The fingerboard, of rosewood, presents 17 metal frets.

C. 23.        Fender electric guitar type Stratocaster, serial number MN8309477, made during the last decade of 20th century. The instrument is made of red-varnished maple with white pickguard. Neck and head in a single piece of pale maple with all the machinery on the left of the head and 21 metal frets. On the top of the body there are three control knobs (volume and two tone knobs), the pick-up selector switch, three pick-ups, and the output jack. Dimensions: total length 981mm (38.6”); body length 401mm (15.8”); neck and head length 580mm (22.85”); width of upper bout 264mm (10.4”); width of lower bout 309mm (12.15”); width of waist 218mm (8.6”); body height 44mm (1.75”); vibrating length 643mm (25.3”).

C. 24.        Guitar with two head (kontragitarre), anonymous, made in Germany or in Austria during the first decades of 20th century. The instrument shows a normal six-stringed head and an additional head with six non-fingerable strings. The sound board, made of fir, shows some well restored breaks, the bridge has been restored, and the pickguard probably is not original. The back and the ribs are made of maple, the head are made of black-painted wood, with 23 frets, and they are adjustable by means of a screw on the sound board of the instrument, butterfly machinery. Dimensions: total length 1000mm (39.35”); body length 457mm (18”); neck length 505mm (19.9”); second head length 535mm (21.05”); width of upper bout 264mm (10.4”); width of lower bout 359mm (14.15”); width of waist 201mm (7.9”); height of ribs 73mm (2.85”), 93mm (3.65”); vibrating length 647mm (25.45”); diameter of sound hole 89mm (3.5”).

C. 25.        Anonymous Italian guitar probably made during the second quarter of 20th century. It is made from a tortoiseshell that is the back, the ribs are made of tortoiseshell too, while the circular sound board is made of fir with a circular sound hole measuring 71mm (2.8”), sound board and sound hole are surrounded by a decoration of ebony and mother of pearl. The neck and the head are made of pale wood, while the fingerboard is made of rosewood with 17 metal frets. The machinery shows bone butterflies, while the bridge and the tailpiece are made of aluminium. The instrument is 902mm (35.5”) long and 398mm (15.65”) wide.

C. 26.        Ten-stringed Tiple requinto, made in Bucaramanga (Colombia) during the first decade of 20th century. This instrument, with metal strings, is tuned: E E – B B B – G G G – D D, deriving from Portuguese viola da terra, it has become one of the most common instrument in Colombia. The inner brand says: JOSE ANTONIO MADERO / FABRICANTE / DE TYPLES, BADOLAS Y GUITARRAS / BUCARAMANGA. The instrument is 822mm (32.35”) long, with maximum width 266mm (10.45”) and minimum width 169mm (6.65”), diapason 535mm (21.05”). On the fir sound board there is the round sound hole with diameter measuring 85mm (3.35”), with a decoration with mother of pearl inserts and the owner’s initials T R B. The ribs, 81mm (3.2”) high, and the back, in two pieces, the neck, and the head, empty inside, are made of mahogany. There are ten pegs, one of them is not original, and an elegant wooden case with, inside, an amaranth velvet and a mirror.

C. 27.        Hungarian guitar, the title block shows the caption: FRANZ HACKHOFER / LAUTEN U GEIGENMACHER / IN PEST ANNO 1831. This maker operated till 1836 in Pest that, joining with Buda in 1873, gave birth to Budapest. The guitar shows a very pronounced eight shape with dimensions: total length 922mm (36.3”); body length 438mm (17.25); length of neck 308mm (12.1”); width of upper bout 254mm (10”); width of lower bout 312mm (12.3”); width of waist 182mm (7.15”); height of ribs 74mm (2.9”), 82mm (3.2”); vibrating length 635mm (25”); diameter of sound hole 86mm (3.4”). The instrument has the sound board made of fir with a slight purfling around the board and the circular sound hole. The back and the ribs are made of maple with fiddleback; neck and fingerboard are made of ebonised wood. The fingerboard presents 19 brass frets and arrives to the sound hole. The head, in the shape of a comma, has six pegs and a hole for the strap.

C. 28.        Spanish classic guitar, datable to the first half of 20th century, with the writing Royal impressed on the board. The instrument has the sound board of fir, back and ribs of maple, fingerboard of rosewood and the neck had 18 metal frets. The total length 943mm (37.1”), diapason 621mm (24.45”), sound hole 86mm (3.4”), ribs 85mm (3.35”), width of upper bout 263mm (10.35”), width of lower bout 345mm (13.6”), width of waist 233mm (9.15”).

C. 29.        Neapolitan lyre-guitar with the stamp JORIO / NAPOLI, at the bottom of the board. Inside there is a dark red title block and, with golden letters, there is the writing1834 / DUC. 24. / G. C. that are the initials of the customer, also reported on the mother-of-pearl emblem on the head. The total length from the head is 866mm (34.1”), width body in the centre 350mm (13.75”), length fingerboard 452mm (17.8”), diapason 625mm (24.6”), width between the arms 342mm (13.45”),  width ribs at the bottom 110mm (4.35”), at the centre 80mm (3.15”), at the top of the arms 19mm (0.75”). This instrument had its splendour during the neoclassical period, especially in France and in Italy till the first decades of 19th century. Back and ribs of maple, sound board of fir with floral decorations of ebony, sound hole in the shape of a half moon and little oval holes on the arms, quadruple purfling of ebony and fir on the borders and around the holes, fingerboard made of rosewood with 21 frets, and the connection between neck and body is between the 17th and the 18th fret, golden bronzes in the shape of two snakes connect the top of the arms with the head.

C. 30.        Harmonic guitar with machinery, ten-stringed: the first, two playing strings, are single, and the other four in courses of two strings. The inner title block is rectangular with the caption: royal coat of arms / PASQUALE VINACCIA E FIGLI / Fabbricanti di Strumenti Armonici / DI S. M. La REGINA d’ITALIA / Rua Catalana N° 53 / NAPOLI Anno 1881. The guitar, completed with the case made of wood with a blue velvet lining, was made for Mr. Domenico Colucci from Martina Franca, effectively there are a crown and his initials of metal on the head and the sale contract headed to him. The machinery of the instrument is “covered”, with head, neck, and fingerboard made of rosewood, it has 18 metal frets with 4 position markers made of mother of pearl (5th, 7th, 10th, 12th), the back, in two pieces, and the ribs are made of maple with fiddleback and ebony purfling. The sound board is made of fir decorated with a quintuple ebony purfling with circular sound hole and decorations of mother of pearl, and ebony purfling, the wide pickguard and the bridge are made of tortoiseshell, the butterflies of the machinery and the pegs are made of ivory. The dimensions are: total length 931mm (36.65”); body length 445mm (17.5”); length of neck 298mm (11.75”); width of upper bout 240mm (9.45); width of lower bout 302mm (11.9”); width of waist 176mm (6.9”); height of ribs 72mm (2.85”), 83mm (3.25”); vibrating length 603mm (23.75”); diameter of sound hole 79mm (3.1”).

C. 31.        Anonymous chitarra battente from South Italy, datable to mid 18th century. It shows 5 courses of strings and one more string added between the third and the fourth that triples the second course as in Apulian tradition. The sound board is made of fir, in two pieces, joined at the level of the ivory bridge that is fixed, and continues on the neck till the first fret. The sound hole shows signs of a paper rosette, now lost, and is surrounded by a metal decoration (silver?) immersed in a black plaster. The strings are hooked to the bottom of the ribs with five ivory pegs; the strap pin and the nut are made of the same material. The neck, of ebonised wood, shows eight metal frets while the head has eleven holes for the pegs, one for the strap and a middle decoration, geometric, made of bone and ebony. The body has a particular rounded shape, made of ribs of dark wood alternated with thick planking of pale wood, eight for the sides and 21 for the back, at the side of the bass notes there are two vent holes while at the sides of the high notes there are three. The measures are: total length 874mm (34.4”), length of neck 220mm (8.65”), diapason 453mm (17.85”), length of body 775mm (30.5”), maximum width 273mm (10.75”), minimum width 185mm (7.3”), width of sound hole 87mm (3.4”), width of upper bout 215mm (8.45”), height of ribs 99mm (3.9”) and 112mm (4.4”).

C. 32.        Harp-guitar made in 1835. Inside the title block says: EMILIUS N. SCHERR / Piano Forte and Organ Builder & c. / PHILADELPHIA / No. 264 Market Street / all kinds of Musical Instruments Repaired; while on the sound hole is written: PATENT / Harp Guitar. Emilius Nicolai Scherr (Copenhagen 23/5/1794 – Philadelphia 14/8/1874), son of the Danish piano maker Johan, started his profession in Denmark, than he moved to Linz in 1819, and later, in 1822, to Philadelphia where, till 1836, he had his factory of pianos, organs, and guitars in High Street, n. 264. He made pianos until 1855 working together with Lars Jørgen Rudolf Olsen. The sound board shows a floral decoration made of rosewood, a second sound hole on the foot, and the bridge of ebony; on the back there is a rich golden decoration and the head has on the top two heads of raptors. The dimensions are: length 1520mm (59.85”), breadth 330mm (13”), width 87mm (3.4”). Body and neck are made of rosewood, the sound board of spruce, the butterflies of the machinery, the nut, and the feet are made of ivory while the 19 frets and the machinery are made of brass.

C. 33.        Hawaiian guitar (Lap-Steel) with drone, made in about 1920, by indication of Gian Battista Noceti (Genova 1874-Roma 1957), the inventor of the harp guitar. The Hawaiian guitar was born in 1909 by an emigrated luthier who had Norwegian origins, Chris J. Knutsen. In 1914 Weissenborn, made guitars with a typical shape, still used, played horizontally with a metal plank or tone bar, full and heavy; designed to rest ergonomically and comfortably on the knees of the musician, from that the term Lap-Steel. The inner title block has the caption: Chitarra Hawaiana / Sistema Noceti. The large sound box continues on the neck, completely hollow, and stops at the level of the nut, while on the fingerboard there are five holes instead of the position markers of mother of pearl, and the frets are only drawn. The nut and the bridge are two little metal tubes and the head continues outwards to receive the drone. The total length is 978mm (38.5”) while the height of the ribs is 99mm (3.9”).

C. 34.        Harmonic guitar with ten strings: The firsts, two single playing strings, and the other four in courses of two strings. The inner title block is rectangular with the caption: suonatrice di lira / GAETANO VINACCIA / In Napoli - Rua Catalana Numero 46 / 1850. The instrument has the machinery with pegs (three of them are not original) with head, neck, and fingerboard made of rosewood, it has 17 metal frets, the back, in a single piece, and the ribs are made of maple with ebony purfling. The sound board is made of fir decorated with a triple ebony purfling, a circular sound hole, and a rich ebony decoration under the bridge with, in the middle, the initials of the costumer D M. The dimensions are: total length 923mm (36.35”); body length 440mm (17.3”); width of upper bout 240mm (9.45”); width of lower bout 303mm (11.9”); width of waist 161mm (6.35”); height of the ribs 68mm (2.65”) – 87mm (3.4”); vibrating length 631mm (24.85”); diameter of sound hole 82mm (3.2”).

C. 35.        Anonymous guitar datable between the end of 19th century and the early 20th century. The fingerboard, made of ebonised wood, has 18 metal frets, the butterflies of the machinery are made of bone, the sound board is made of fir with triple purfling, and the back and the ribs are made of rosewood. The total length is 928mm (36.55”), diapason 621mm (24.45”), the sound hole is 76mm (3”), the ribs are 67mm (2.65”) - 75mm (2.95”), width of upper bout 223mm (8.75”), width of lower bout 302mm (11.9”), width of waist 179mm (7.05”).

C. 36.        Banjo-guitar with six strings, branded EMPERADOR. This was one of the brands of the Cort line of Westheimer Musical Instruments, Chicago, 56 W. 103d St., Illinois until 1960. This instrument was born to satisfy the need of American country musicians, who used to play guitar, but who wanted the typical sonorities of banjo without being forced to learn a new instrument. This instrument has the neck of rosewood with position markers of mother of pearl, back and ribs made of mahogany with pale wood purfling, the tension hoop made of aluminium with chromed machinery and brackets, and sound board of natural leather. The total length is 900mm (35.45”); the diameter of resonator is 335mm (13.2”) while the diameter of the leather is 280mm (11”).

C. 37.        Cigar box guitar, rudimentary musical instrument, belonging to chordophones. The instrument was made with makeshift means, like precisely cigar boxes, by African-American day labourers in Southern State of USA. These peculiar objects spread starting from 19th century, when cigars start to be commercialised in boxes rather than in barrels. There were many variation of this instrument mostly depending on the means that could be found for the make. They were made with or without frets, and with one up to six strings. The most spread variation has three strings and frets; the most rudimentary one has one string without frets. This last was often made of a broomstick as neck. It is one of the instruments that gave birth to delta blues and the most used techniques (most of all for fretless variation) are slap and slide (or bottleneck). The instrument tuning usually follows the last strings of the guitar, but more often the open tunings more suitable for bottleneck technique. This instrument has been made by Liuteria Elettrica in Turin out of a box of Cuban cigars branded H. UPMANN and a broomstick, it has no frets, a single string, an old key as bridge, and a violin peg for the tuning.

C. 38.        Guitar popular "tierce" built in Southern Italy (Naples? Sicily?), Anonymous, dating from the early decades of the twentieth century. Fund, sides, handle and scoop in ebonized rosewood, spruce top with oval hole. There are seventeen metal frets, the nut and butterflies are in bone. The table is enriched by a butterfly-shaped inlay and surrounded by a decoration painted with black strokes. The bridge, coarse, has a mustache, dark wood with six handmade small pioletti. The total length is mm. 787, the case is long mm. 382, maximum width mm. 247, minimum mm. 176, the hole mm. 77 x 63, the ribs are high from mm. 72 to 90. Nut and butterflies of the bone mechanics. The triplet guitar was a very widespread instrument in the first half of the nineteenth century, which we can deduce from the conspicuous amount of repertoire existing for it. The fact that most of it was composed by authors of the Austrian area, suggests a more widespread use in this geographical area. In practice it is a smaller instrument than the normal nineteenth-century guitar, and tuned a minor third (hence the name) higher up. These two characteristics give it a powerful, clear and sharp sound; a sound that allows it to stand out more in instrumental ensembles. The totality of his repertoire consists of chamber music: the formations are the most varied from the duo (with guitar or with the violin, with fortepiano etc.) to the concert with the orchestra (remember what M. Giuliani composed for this type of instrument: the third concert in Fa Magg. Op.70 for guitar and orchestra).

C. 39.        Portuguese guitar (fado guitar) from Porto, anonymous, datable to the first decades of the twentieth century but attributable to António Duarte (active in Porto from 1870 to 1919). António Duarte had the first workshop in via Bainharia, founded in 1870 and then moved to via Mouzinho da Silveira No. 165/167. He made 3 models with 470 mm, 440 mm and 420 mm vibrating rope lengths and also used different body sizes (from 35 cm to 27 cm) and sides that could vary between 8.5 cm and 7 cm (maximum) and 5.5 cm and 4 cm (minimum). António Duarte is also known as a good builder of violins, violas and mandolins, rightly considered the creator of the guitar model of Porto, which was distinguished from that of Lisbon by its more archaic form (near the profile of the Italian cithara) and the head usually decorated with zoo and phytomorphic motifs. The instrument shows an internal label that reads: Feliciano Freire Branco / Encarrega-se do fabrico de guitarras, bandolins, requintas, and violas bem como de todos os concertos nos mesmos. / Tambem se encarrega de polir qualquer movel. Guarantor-if or bom acabamento. / (erased with pen) R. de S. Sebastião da Pedreira, 86, 1. ° E / (handwritten) Vila Nova de aurem / 10, 7, 926. Freire Branco was a craftsman cabinetmaker, with a workshop first in Lisbon and then to Aurem, who, in 1926, restored and then sold the guitar by putting his own label on it. The Portuguese guitar probably derives from flat-bottomed plectrum instruments such as the cetra in Italy, the cister in England and the cistère in Germany. The eighteenth century is a period of decadence and oblivion throughout Europe for the cetra, but in Portugal it becomes the most used instrument by popular musicians, especially in the suburbs of urban centers and the association with Fado ensures the survival of this guitar making Portugal the the only European country in which it has been actively preserved. The Portuguese guitar is a musical instrument full of symbolism and is characterized by the Portuguese "way of being", where destiny and desire are words that naturally associate with the "trinado" and had its greatest interpreter in Amalia Rodriques that, over the years 70, made Fado known all over the world. It has such an unmistakable tone that, wherever it is, any Portuguese recognizes it at the first sounds. There are three types of Portuguese guitar: Lisbon, Coimbra and Porto. The one in Lisbon with the low rounded case and the one with the most "brilliant" sound. The one in Coimbra is bigger, with the body taking on a more voluminous shape while the one in Porto is the smallest. One of the main differences lies in the head of the guitar: that of Coimbra has an inlaid tear, while that of Lisbon presents a scroll. That of Porto enjoys greater freedom, sometimes having a flower or a horse or a carved dragon; the three styles share the six orders of metal strings. The tuning is particular, the strings, divided into six double choirs, are tuned according to the scheme: B, A, E, B, A, D, with the three singing choirs in unison and the others in the octave. Vibrating length mm. 420, seventeen metal frets on the ebonized handle and, above the radial ankle, there is carved a horse's head. Spruce board with triple double thread at the edge and circular hole with numerous threads in ebony, bottom and bands in maple.

D. 16.        Mandoloncello (German?), first decade of 20th century, bowlback made of 21 rosewood staves with alternated shades. Sound board of fir, rich of wood rays, with large pickguard made of tortoiseshell, the strap pin and the nut are made of ivory; the butterflies of the machinery have been made later.

M. 75.       Miniatures of instruments made of tortoiseshell, dating back to the first half of 20th century. A mandolin covered with tortoiseshell with four pegs and silver decorations on the whole body. A guitar with rounded back and decorations made of bone and mother of pearl.

M. 87.       Miniature of violin, datable to the mid-20th century, probably Italian. The small violin of mm. 224 in length, housed in a case covered in black vinyl leather with two snap-on locks and a handle, it is made of wood and perfectly imitates the true violin in its proportions. There are four metal ropes of the same section and four small wooden pegs, in light wood are also the keyboard, the tailpiece and a small chin guard while the bottom is of maple.




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