E. 35. Bass flute, in C, Italian, made in mid 20th century, branded: ORSI / MILAN. The flute, made of nickel-plated brass, presents a curved head joint and Böehm machinery.
I. 1. Pelitti trumpet in Bb, Italy, with three rotary valve buttons, brass, length (without mouthpiece) 44,5cm (17.5”), signed "Giuseppe Pelitti Premiatto a Milano" (signature carved on the bell on a crown apparently made of silver with a nice decoration with oak leaves and acorns), three spare mouthpieces, original wooden case. The carved, and not stamped, signature, the lack of the serial number and the lack of the coat of arms of Savoy could date this instrument back between 1828 and 1850.
I. 2. Trumpet in Bb, Italy, 1920s. Branded on the bell: A RAMPONE / B. CAZZANI & C / MILANO. The 1928 catalogue defines it "Trumpet o Trompette in Bb with 3 piston valves, long and slander shape, narrow tubing, for soloists”, price 110 lire. Nickel-plated and dull brass, and chromed brass; slide on the tubing of the third piston valve.
I. 3. Trumpet in Eb - F made of nickel-plated brass, Italian, anonymous, mid 20th century. On the bell the name Stella Giuseppe is carved. The instrument has three piston valves and a spare tuning slide to change from Eb to F. The total length, without mouthpiece, is 585mm (23.05”).
I. 4. Bass trumpet, Italian, in Bb, made of brass, with three piston valves, branded: five-pointed star / lyre with laurel branches / F.I.S.M. / Rampone Cazzani / Milano / five-pointed star. The instrument dates back to the sixth decade of 20th century; in 1958, Remo Saltamerenda took over the Rampone and changed the name into F.I.S.M. Fabbrica Italiana Strumenti Musicali.
I. 5. Flugelhorn in Bb, anonymous, first half of 20th century, probably German. The instrument, made of brass, shows three cylindrical buttons and conical tubing. The total length is 128cm (50.4”) while the diameter of the bell is 14cm (5.5”).
I. 6. Warning horn, Italy, 1950s. Branded on the bell: Kalison / fabbrica-strumenti-musicali / Milano. This instrument, used by the Italian Navy, has a single piston valve.
I. 7. Warning horn, Czechoslovakia, first half of 20th century, brass. The instrument is valveless; it shows two volutes and is 411mm (16.2”) tall without the mouthpiece. On the bell is carved F 1911.
I. 8. Natural trumpet made of brass known as Alps trumpet or Alps horn, made by the Pelitti manufacturer in Milan or, most probably, by the Florentine Adolfo Lapini during the second half of 19th century for the scenic designs of La Scala on the occasion of the performance of Wagner’s Tannhauser. This unusual instrument, 90cm (35.45”) tall and 195cm (76.75”) long without mouthpiece, shows a valve and a strange swelling before the bell like a cor anglais has. On the bell there is a silver foil with two branches with leaves and fruits, and the writing: Privil.ª e Brevett. Fabbrica.
I. 9. Concert saxhorn, French model in G and D, USA, first half of 20th century, nickel-plated tubing, very long and narrow, a single piston valve and a rotary valve for the melodic “bass slide” in F and G. On the bell the brand GETZEN / DELUX / ELKHORN / -WIS.-.
I. 10. French trombone, datable to the second decade of 20th century, with Viennese machinery. The instrument, made of brass, has, carved on the bell: SYSTEME PROTOTYPE / FB (monogram) / F. BESSON / BREVETE’ / S.G.N.G / 96 RUE D’ANGOULEME / PARIS / five-pointed star / GRADS PRIX / PARIS 1900 / ST. LUIS 1904 / LIEGE 1905 / BRUXELLES 1910 / HORS CONCOURS. The instrument, 95cm (37.4”) long, shows three short piston valves controlling the Viennese machinery and on the leadpipe there is, carved, F. Besson – Paris 82357.
I. 11. Slide trombone, English, datable to the second decade of 20th century. On the bell there is the brand: TRADEMARK / BOOSEY / BESSONS & CO. / LONDON W.C.2 / 75983. The family of French makers Besson opened a branch manufacturer in London in 1850. In the first decades of 20th century, they made instruments in collaboration with Boosey who absorbed their manufacturer in 1948. The instrument is made of brass and, with closed slide, is 110cm (43.3”) long.
I. 12. Italian trombone in Bb, showing two interchangeable bodies: one with slide and one with three piston valves. The instrument, made of brass during the first half of 20th century, is branded on the bell: ORSI / MILANO.
I. 13. Euphonium in Bb, with three rotary valves, made of nickel-plated brass during the first half of 20th century. Typical instrument of marching bands, it is now used in wind bands of central Europe and Croatia.
I. 14. English euphonium, made in 1922 of nickel-plated brass, three piston valves type Périnet, in Eb. On the bell is carved the caption: SUPERIOR / CLASS / HAWKES & SON / Deman Street / Piccadilly Circus / LONDON / 54122. On the piston valve is carved: on the first 22, on the second 23 / HAWKES & SON / LONDON / 6, on the third 24. Height 735mm (28.95”), diameter of the bell 345mm (13.6”), original mouthpiece.
I. 15. Helicon in Eb. Ceruti manufacturer in Naples, three piston valves. On the bell is carved the caption: F. Ceruti / Napoli. Francesco and his brother Salvatore Ceruti made instruments until the beginning of 20th century; after 1930 they only marked the instruments produced by the manufacturers of North Italy, like Orsi and Rampone & Cazzani. From 1950 the manufacturer was gave to the heirs with the name Musical Ceruti and nowadays it only sells and repairs instruments.
I. 16. Ophicleide in C, French, mid 19th century, made by Gautrot in Paris. Joseph Halliday, Irish wind instruments maker, in 1810 invented the “Keyed Bugle”, a saxhorn with keys similar to saxophone keys, making brass instruments to be totally chromatic. The ophicleide is a marching band instrument and is the lowest of keyed trumpets family. The instrument is entirely made of brass and shows nine keys, it is 974mm (38.35”) high. The maker, Pierre Louis Gautrot, operated in Paris from 1845 to 1884.
I. 17. Soprano multiple horn (schalmei), strange instrument made of eight different horns with different lengths that play thanks to metal reeds, with range from E3 to E4, jointed with a single oval mouthpiece and with three piston valves. This instrument has been made by the Martin manufacturer in Paris in 1930s and recalls the althorns made by Distin in 1880.
I. 18. Tenor multiple horn (schalmei), instrument of the first decades of 20th century made of eight different horns with different lengths that play thanks to metal reeds, jointed with a mechanism with three piston valves and with a cup mouthpiece. The range goes from C2 to C3. Also this instrument derives from Distin althorn.
I. 19. Natural trumpet in Eb, anonymous, probably made during the first decades of 20th century in manufacturers belonging to Friedrich Hirsbrunner (1841 – 1927) in Sumiswald, Switzerland. The instrument is made of natural brass, 729mm (28.7”) long, made of a single narrow and long volute, and on the bell there is a nickel silver wreath.
I. 20. Cornet in Eb branded: (in circle) coat of arms with three stars in laurel field / Ceruti / Napoli. Ceruti brothers in 1950 sold the enterprise that got the name Musical Ceruti Eredi di Francesco Ceruti di Salvatore Ceruti & C. S.a.s in Casalnuovo di Napoli. The instrument, made during the third quarter of 20th century, is made of nickel-plated brass with three piston valves Périnet type and it is, without mouthpiece, 368mm (14.5”) high.
I. 21. Reed contrabass, made during the first decade of 20th century, has, carved on the bell, the brand: Prem° Stabil° / B. Cazzani & C° / Milano. This instrument, with double reed, is entirely made of nickel-plated brass. The reed contrabass was initially invented by Stowasser, in Graslitz / Kraslice, who created a sort of metal contrabassoon, the idea was not very successful and was soon abandoned, but the Begian maker Charles Mahillon noticed the potentiality of the new instrument and resumed the idea, refining it and creating the reed contrabass very few years after the invention of sarrusophone. The reed contrabass can emit only a chromatic scale; that is, it has not a fingering corresponding to other wind instruments: every key is a semitone so that it is considered an instrument in C although the tonic is Eb (with key descending to D); it is played pushing the keys one by one: the right hand plays the lower notes, and the left the high notes. The instrument was made in a unique size with a range approximately the same as a contrabassoon.
I. 22. Slide trombone, English, Victorian Age, made of silvered brass; length 1159mm (45.9”). The instrument, with narrow and long tubing, and small bell, shows a fine floral chiselling on every joint. Brand: PATENT 256761 / Perfecta Truline / CLASS A / TRADE MARK / BOOSEY / BOOSEY & CO LTD / MAKERS LONDON / 137187 / British Throughout.
I. 23. Vertical baritone horn, Italian, in Bb, made during the first decades of 20th century, made of brass with rotary valves machinery. The brand is: five-pointed star / lyre with laurel branches / PREMIATO STABIL. / B. CAZZANI E C. / MILANO / ESPORTAZINE MONDIALE / A. RAMPONE / Ditte Riunite / B. CAZZANI / five-pointed star.
I. 24. Trumpet in Eb, German, made during the first decades of 20th century and used in military bands. The instrument, with narrow and long tubing, made of chromed brass, is 769mm (30.25”) long with the mouthpiece and presents three piston valves.
I. 25. Warning horn or post horn, anonymous, made at the end of 19th century, made of six simple coils of golden brass and the mouthpiece. The diameter of the volutes is 117mm (4.6”) while the diameter of the bell is 70mm (2.75”).
I. 26. Cavalry trombone, Flemish, datable to the first decades of 20th century, branded: EXCELSIOR / CH. MAHEU & FILS / FOURNISSEURS / DE L`ARMEE / ET DES / CONSERVATOIRES / GAND / BREVETEG. This instrument is a tenor trombone with three piston valves, about 70cm (27.55”) long, and it was used by military riding bands, being playable with a single hand and having the front downwards.
I. 27. American mellophone made of chromed brass, made by Holton in mid of 20th century. The mellophone is a sort of French horn, in Bb, used in particular in USA, made of circular tubing, like the horn, and three vertical piston valves. The mouthpiece is cup-shaped, very similar to the mouthpiece of a trumpet, and the bell is screwed in body. The diameter of the body is 33cm (13”) while the diameter of the bell is 28cm (11”).
I. 28. Cornopean, French, anonymous, datable between 1860 and 1880, in its original case and with two little mouthpieces. This instrument, entirely made of brass, is the precursor of the cornet and is in A. The cornopean has three piston valves with Stöelzel valve machinery.
I. 29. Reed contrabass, Italian, branded: [double-headed eagle in coat of arms] / SOC. AN. / W. STOWASSER'S SOHNE / PREMIATA E PRIVILEGIATA FABBRICA / DI ISTRUMENTI MUSICALI / VERONA / VIA MENTANA / [eagle]. The instrument, made of nickel-plated brass during the first decades of 20th century, shows seventeen keys, five for the left hand and five for the left thumb, five for the right hand and two for the right thumb.
I. 30. Saxhorn in Bb, German, made of brass, with three piston valves, Berliner machinery, branded: Albert Kley / Instrumentenbauer / Berlin. The instrument, 56cm (20.85”) long, the bell has diameter of 22cm (8.65”), was made between 1910 and 1913, years when the maker put his signature while during other years he worked for important Berliner manufacturers like C.F. Schmidt and G. Eschenbach.
I. 31. French cornet, branded: fleur-de-lis / THIBOUVILLE / PARIS / MADE ESPECIALLY / for / SHERMAN CLAY & C°. / SAN FRANCISCO. The instrument was made of brass probably during the last decades of 19th century for the American market. The instrument has narrow and compact tubing for a brilliant sound; it presents three piston valves and two possible tuning (C and Bb). Tuning changing is possible by changing the tubing between the mouthpiece and the leadpipe.
I. 32. Bass trombone in C, German, anonymous, made during the second half of 19th century. The instrument, entirely made of brass, presents four rotary valves with Bavarian machinery, so that with the inversion between the first and the second button.
I. 33. Cornet in Bb made in Eastern Europe during the first decades of 20th century. The instrument, entirely made of brass, has three rotary valves controlled by vertical piston valves Lever type.
I. 34. German cornet with Bavarian machinery, anonymous, datable to the end of 19th century. The instrument, entirely made of brass, presents three rotary valves, with the inversion between the first and the second button, and a silver wreath on the border of the bell.
I. 35. Mouthpieces for trumpet, cornet, French horn, saxhorn, trombone, and baritone horn from France, Germany, and Italy. Datable between the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, they are made of brass and nickel-plated brass.
I. 36. Saxhorn with two piston valves, branded: JEROME / THIBOUVILLE – LAMY / 58 BIS Rue Reaumur / PARIS / A.G., made between 1867 and 1870. The instrument, made of brass, presents two piston valves Périnet type and a narrow and long tubing; it has its original mouthpiece.
I. 37. Tenor horn, Italian, in Eb, branded ANBORG / COMO, datable to mid 20th century, made of nickel-plated brass and with three piston valves. The total length is 540mm (21.25”) without mouthpiece, while the diameter of the bell is 188mm (7.4”). This manufacturer was found by Antonelli and Borghi, two artisans who worked in Cazzani’s manufacturer and who operated in Como, in via Napoleone, until 1970s.
I. 38. Euphonium in Bb, that can be carried on shoulder in order to be played only with the right hand and to be used in military bands on bicycle. The instrument is datable to the end of 19th century, entirely made of brass; it presents a machinery with three piston valves outside the tubing. The brand is: royal coat of arms / PRIMARIA / PREMIATA FABBRICA / LUIGI ALZIATI / MILANO / (ITALIA) / five-pointed star. The total length is 745mm (29.35”) while the diameter of the bell is 278mm (10.95”).
I. 39. Cimbasso (contrabass trombone in Bb), Italian, branded: five-pointed star / lyre / premiato stabil. / B. CAZZANI / MILANO / Esportazione Mondiale / in oval: A. RAMPONE / Ditte Riunite / B. CAZZANI / five-pointed star / RAPPRES. IN SICILIA / G. SACCO & CO / PALERMO. The instrument, entirely made of nickel-plated brass, is datable to the first quarter of 20th century; it presents a machinery with four cylinders.
I. 40. French horn, in Eb, branded RAMPONE / BD OFED NY C 1965 / ITALY. Instrument made of brass, machinery with three rotary valves.
I. 41. Bass tuba in Eb, datable to the first decades of 20th century, branded: BRITISH STANDARD / L. P. / LONDON / BRITISH MADE / BEARE & SON / TORONTO. This manufacturer, operating in London since 1865 and specialised in bowed instruments, also produced numerous brass instruments to be exported in Europe and North America (B & S). This instrument is entirely made of brass and presents three vertical piston valves.
I. 42. American warning trumpet, made in early 20th century and used in military music. The instrument, made of brass, is 474mm (18.65”) long without the mouthpiece; it has a single horizontal piston valve, two water keys, and is branded: CONN / MADE BY / C. G. Conn Ltd / ELKART IND. / U.S.A.
I. 43. Trumpet in Bb, made during the fourth decade of 20th century. Branded on the bell: A - RAMPONE / QUARNA NOVARA. The instrument, made of chromed brass, has three Perinèt type piston valves and is 490mm (19.3”) long without mouthpiece. It was made by Alfonso Rampone, cousin of more famous Agostino, who, from 1932 to 1974, installed in Quarna his manufacturer, taking over SAIIIM equipments.
I. 44. Keyed saxhorn, English, in C, datable to the second decade of 19th century. Body made of copper while the six keys and the wreath, with the brand Gerock / 19 Cornhill, London, are made of brass. The keys have flat and circular heads, leather pads, and they are hinged on brass saddles with springs riveted on the body of the key. The farthest from the mouthpiece (D / F#) is controlled by the little finger of the right hand, it can be blocked on closing with a screw (missing), the second key (C# / G#) is controlled by the right ring finger, the third (D / A) by the index finger, the fourth (Eb / Db) by the right thumb, the fifth (Bb / Eb) by the right index finger and the nearest to mouthpiece (E / F) by the right thumb. The mouthpiece is original; the total length (without mouthpiece) is 432mm (17”). Christopher Gerock, son of German immigrants, operated in London from 1804 to 1837 and had his offices in Cornhill between 1808 and 1823. The insertion of keys like the ones used in woodwinds allowed to natural trumpet to emit not only the natural harmonics, but almost the whole chromatic scale, and that became possible with piston valves (1818). The most famous performer with this instrument was Anton Weidinger (Vienna, 9/6/1767 - 20/11/1852). For him Haydn composed his famous Trumpet Concerto in E flat major. Also in Italy this instrument has a good success testified by methods for keyed trumpet published by Asioli and by Araldi.
I. 45. Natural warning trumpet, branded: five-pointed star / lyre / PREMIATO STABIL.TO / B. CAZZANI & C. / MILANO / ESPORTAZIOONE MONDIALE / in oval A. RAMPONE / Ditte Riunite / B. CAZZANI & C. / five-pointed star. The instrument, made in around 1912, is made of nickel-plated brass, without buttons, with the height of 654mm (25.75”), with bell diameter of 145mm (5.7”).
I. 46. Flugelhorn made in around 1932, branded: RAMPONE / & / CAZZANI / MILAN, Vademecum type. The instrument is made of brass with three rotary valves. The total length is 450mm (17.7”) without mouthpiece, while the diameter of the bell is 138mm (5.45”).
I. 47. Tenor horn, Italian, in Eb, branded: coat of arms of Savoy / C. ZINZI & C. / ROMA / five-pointed star, datable to around 1935. The instrument is made of nickel-plated brass with three piston valves machinery, the total length is 519mm (20.45”) without mouthpiece, while the bell diameter is 154mm (6.05”). Carlo Zinzi only made instruments used in marching bands, and he basically made brass instruments. In Roma, in early 20th century, there was a merchant, Comingio Zinzi, the probable costumer of a series of stencils.
I. 48. Baritone horn, vertical, Italian, in Bb, made in around 1895, made of brass with rotary cylinders machinery, branded: lyre / CERUTTI / TURIN / asterisk. Giovan Battista Cerutti operated in Turin from the last decades of 19th century to 1909, year when he started to commercialise only others makers’ instruments.
I. 49. Tenor trombone branded: PRIMARIO / FORN.RE R. ESERCITO / coat of arms of Savoy / PREMIATA FABBRICA / FERD.O ROTH / MILANO / asterisk / Esportazione Mondiale. The instrument, with small shank, made in around 1880, is made of brass and shows a machinery with three rotary valves. Ferdinando Roth, born in Adorf in 1815, settled in Milan where he worked for Pelitti. He founded his own manufacturer in 1842. Since 1878 he worked with his son-in-low, Antonio Bottali, till 1898 when, at Roth’s death, he took over the manufacturer with the brand Roth & Bottali.
I. 50. Tenor trombone, Italian, branded: MORUTTO MARCELLO / coat of arms of Savoy / TORINO, made probably in 1884. The instrument has large shank, with diapason 440 Hz; it is made of brass with a silver wreath on the border of the bell and presents a machinery with three rotary valves.
I. 51. Contrabass tuba in Eb branded: three five-pointed stars / E. ZACCARIA / VERONA / five-pointed star. The instrument, made of brass with machinery with three rotary valves, made in around 1910, high about 1041mm (41”) and with a 439mm (17.3”) bell, it was made by one of the numerous artisans in Verona in early 20th century who later worked for the Stowasser manufacturer.
I. 52. German tuba in Eb branded: WILHELM HERWIG / imperial eagle / MARCKNEUKIRCHEN / SACHSEN. The instrument presents a machinery with three piston valves of Berliner type with the tubing of the second piston without slide. The instrument is made of natural brass, high 840mm (33.05”) with bell, decorated with a nickel silver wreath, with diameter of 270mm (10.6”). It is datable between the ending of 19th and early 20th century; the maker W. Herwig, former violinist and luthier, operated as wind instrument maker from 1890 to 1940 and in early 20th century began to use the brand HERWIGA.
I. 53. Tenor horn in Eb, branded: five-pointed star / coat of arms / PREMITA / FABBRICA / RIBONI & BENICCHIO / MILANO / five-pointed star. The instrument, datable to the third decade of 20th century, is made of natural brass with machinery with three rotary valves. The total length is 529mm (10.8”) without mouthpiece, while the diameter of the bell is 164mm (6.45”). Romolo Riboni, former worker in Rampone manufacturer, and Battista Benicchio, former worker in Sambruna manufacturer, in 1930 created their own manufacturer specialised in the production of brass instruments.
I. 54. Rothcorno, Italian, in Eb branded: BREVETTO / BOTTALI / five-pointed star / diapason / PREMIATA FABBRICA / FerdO ROTH / MILANO / eight-pointed flower. The instrument, 419mm (16.5”) high, made in 1908, is of chromed brass with machinery with three rotary valves. This instrument, with conical bore and with the peculiar oval shape, was created to substitute harmony horn in marching bands. Presented during the Didactic Musical Congress in 1098 in Milan, this instrument was made with three o four rotary valves, in Eb or Bb, and substituted the tenor horn or the baritone horn with a sound similar to the sound of horn, but with less emission difficulty.
I. 55. Euphonium in Eb, Italian, datable to around 1870, branded on the nickel silver decoration of the bell: BRIZZI E NICCOLAI / FIRENZE while on the hurt-protector support, opposite to the bell, there is the brand: A. SQUAGLIA & C. / FIRENZE. In 1842 Enea Brizzi, chief of the Carabinieri Military Band, founded, together with Giovanni Niccolai, the musical house "Brizzi e Niccolai". In 1866 Enea Brizzi burst into the history of Italian Risorgimento: together with A. Brofferio wrote the "1866 war song". The manufacturer, moved to Valletta, Malta, in 1909, was renowned for wind instrument making and for piano making. This instrument is made of chromed brass with three rotary valves machinery.
I. 56. Bass trombone in G with machinery with four rotary valves. On the nickel silver wreath on the bell there is the writing: A. J. ROTT ạ syn Praha Kr Vinohrady. Rott August Heinrich Sohn (Augustin Jindrich syn, Prague 1869 - 1917) took over his father’s manufacturer expanding the interests also in Spain together with H. Lahera. The instrument, datable to the end of 19th century, is made of chromed brass with supports of nickel-plated brass and it is 1420mm (55.9”) long.
I. 57. Horizontal baritone horn in Bb, English, made in 1911 (on the first piston there is the incision: Besson & Co breveté and the serial number 93948). On the bell is carved: CLASS / A / 50 MEDALS DI HONOUR / monogram FB / BESSON & C° / “Prototipe” / 198 EUSTON ROAD / LONDON / ENGLAND / five-pointed star. The instrument is 655mm (25.8”) high, while la bell has diameter of 230mm (9.05”). This instrument is a prototype and other samples are very few. It presents a vertical leadpipe; it is made of nickel-plated brass and has three Perinèt type piston valves.
I. 58. Trombone in Bb, with machinery SARV (side-action-rotary-valve), model “Centennial”. The instrument was made in 1875 by Henry Lehnert (b Freiberg, in Saxony 3/2/1838; d Philadelphia 14/10/1916), moved to Freemantle in 1860, with his brother Carl, with whom he founded the Lehnert & Co. In 1866. After moving apart from his brother, he went to Philadelphia to produce his instruments line "American Standard". From 1875 to June 1876 he produced high quality brass instruments, the line “Centennial”, for the bands that would perform during the parades for the centennial of the foundation of United States in on July 4th, 1876. The machinery has three rotary valves activated by long levers that make the cylinder turn by means of a thin twine attached at its bottom. The instrument, made of nickel-plated brass, is 846mm (33.3”) long while the bell has diameter of 401mm (15.8”). The brand is: LEHNERT PHILA. (in circle) / CENTENNIAL.
I. 59. Altophone in Eb with upwards bell. This instrument is a variation of the tenor horn created by Henry Distin and, as the French horn and the mellophone, has circular tubing and a large bell. It is branded: “28 Medals Of Honour" (in banner) / F. B. (monogram) / F. BESSON / BREVETÉE / 198 Euston Rd. / London / five-pointed star / Louis Schreiber / Sole Agent / U. States; on the second piston is carved: in oval F. Besson / five-pointed star / Brevetée / 19825 that makes it date back to 1877. Another peculiarity of this instrument is that it has been imported by Louis Schreiber from New York, who is known today for the unusual drop-shaped Schreiberhorns family. This instrument is made of chromed brass and has three Perinèt type piston valves, it is 413mm (16.25”) high and the bell diameter is 215mm (8.45”).
I. 60. Alto horn in Eb or Pichotte (word used in French marching bands and military bands), made of natural brass with machinery with three Berliner type piston valves; probably made in Germany for the exportation to United States, it is datable to the second half of 20th century. On the bell is carved: LYON & HEALY / Chicago. Patrick Joseph Healy and George Washburn Lyon, from 1864 until 1923, started to merchandise musical instruments made in Europe, branding the instruments with their logo. Total length 545mm (21.45”), diameter of the bell 190mm (7.5”).
I. 61. Solo tenor horn, saxhorn in Eb, with three cylinders with TARV (top-action-rotary-valve) machinery, with the typical rotary valves activated by adjustable twines; made of brass, datable to around 1890. On the bell is carved the caption: Pollmann’s Musik House, New York. Henry August Pollmann moved from Saxony to New York in 1880 where he took over instrument maker John Henry Martin’s enterprise, till his death in 1905. The instrument has bell diameter of 133mm (5.25”) and is 433mm (17.05”) high, without mouthpiece.
I. 62. Trumpet in G, anonymous, made of natural brass, with three piston valves, valve machinery created in Berlin by Heinrich Stöelzel and Friedrich Blühmel in 1814. The instrument, probably French, dates back to mid 19th century, has the caption SOL carved on the embouchure tubing, and on the second piston C 70. The bell diameter is 109mm (4.3”) while the length, without mouthpiece, is 375mm (14.75”).
I. 63. German cornet in F with Bavarian machinery, made at the end of 19th century, branded: C A KEIL / MARKNEUKIRCHEN / SACHSEN. Carl August Keil was a musical instruments wholesaler in Markneukirchen; this instrument was probably made by an anonymous artisan of the town or the region. The instrument, entirely made of brass, presents three rotary valves, with the inversion between the first and the second button, a silver wreath on the border of the bell and two additional tubings to change the tuning to Eb or D.
I. 64. Baritone horn in Bb, made at the end of 19th century, of chromed brass with three piston valves machinery. On the bell there is the brand: royal coat of arms / C SAMBRUNA / MILANO / hunting horn. The Sambruna Camillo manufacturer operated in Milan from 1876 to 1923 (at Camillo’s death, in 1918, his daughters Giannina, Angela, and his son Camillo junior succeeded him) and it had numerous awards for the peculiar quality of its instruments. The instrument is 628mm (24.7”) high and the bell diameter is 215mm (8.45”).
I. 65. Tenor trombone, in Bb, Italian, branded inside of a floral wreath: Premiata Fabbrica / Ditta Massara / Asti, made probably between the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century. Luigi Massara operated between 1888 and 1926 both in Asti and Ivrea and he specialised in realization of low brass instruments. The instrument has large shank, with diapason 440 Hz; it is made of brass with a three rotary valves machinery and buttons decorated with mother of pearl.
I. 66. Trumpet in Bb/C, branded ARIGRA. This is the acronym of "Anton Riedl Graslitz". Anton Riedl was an instrument maker who, in 1885, created his own manufacturer in the Czech town and used this brand from 1928 to 1930; later his son Hugo substituted him in managing the manufacturer. The trumpet was made, most presumably, in 1930 in pure Art Nouveau style: the bell, the outer shell of the piston valves, the nuts, and the rings for the fingers are octagonal: the bell is carved and hammered even inside. The leadpipe has an extension pipe, with a hexagonal ring for the grasp, that allows to change tonality. The tubing of the third piston is extendable thanks to a slide. The trumpet is made of silvered brass, it is 495mm (19.5”) long, the length of the extension pipe of the leadpipe is 53mm (2.1”) while the bell diameter is 115mm (4.5”). These trumpets were used especially for jazz music.
I. 67. Demilune trumpet in C, made by Giuseppe Pelitti between 1830 and 1850. This is a natural trumpet with tubing bent in shape of half moon to allow the player to insert his hand in the bell and lower the tones. This instrument is made of natural brass; it presents the tubing twined three times with a total length of 119mm (4.7”) without mouthpiece. This has a shank lightly bent to allow an easier embouchure. The brand is: coat of arms of Savoy / two seven-pointed stars / G. PELITTI MILANO / seven-pointed star / 16.
I. 68. Euphonium with double bell, branded: made by / J W YORK & SONS / GRAND RAPIDS / MICH. and made in 1908 (serial number on the second piston 17719). The instrument is made of nickel-plated brass, has four Perinèt type piston valves for the baritone voice and a side piston valve, with the number 818 carved, that change the tubing into tenor voice. The tenor bell is forward and is removable while the baritone bell is vertical and unmovable. James Warren York was born in November 24th, 1839 in Exeter, New Hampshire. At first he worked for Boston Musical Instruments Factory and in 1882 moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan, where together with his brother founded the YORK Band Instrument Company. In their music store, initially they imported and sold musical instruments. Then they began to produce cornets, trombones, and embouchures, as well as to provide services of maintenance and restoration. Later James W. York’s sons joined the company. In 1884 the company was known with the title J.W. York and Company. Later, in honour of his son Charles E. York, the name was changed into "York & Son" in 1887, and in 1898 into "York & Sons", in honour of his second son, Frank W. York. York ceded the enterprise to his sons, who operated until 1913, when they sold it to Johnson, John, and James Duffy who took the reins till 1930, year when the enterprise was sold to Carl Fischer.
I. 69. French horn in F - Bb, made in 1925 by Joseph Lidl in Brno, Czech Republic. This factory operated since 1895 and excelled in production of brass instruments, since 1924 distinguished itself for the production of innovative and high quality French horns. This is a compensating instrument; in fact a long rotary valve can be activated with the thumb, redirecting the whole tubing at once. This is the improvement of Carl Geyer’s ideas, known as Wunderlich Model, and allows a quick and soft passage from a position to another. On the valve for the tonality change is carved: Lidl Brno, while on the bell is carved the writing Acustic. The instrument is made of chromed brass with ring nuts and supports made of nickel-plated brass and it shows three rotary valves activated with silver metal keys.
I. 70. Trumpet in Bb, made during the third decade of 20th century. Branded on the bell: A. RAMPONE / B. CAZZANI & C / MILANO. Nickel-plated and dull brass and chromed brass. The instrument has three piston valves and is 501mm (19.7”) long without mouthpiece. On the 1928 catalogue it is described as trumpet Besson type improved Cazzani, with automatic mechanism on the leadpipe to regulate the intonation of lower notes.
I. 71. Contrabass sarrusophone datable to around 1880. The company V.F. Cerveny was founded in 1842 by Vaclav Frantisek Cerveny. Offices in Hradec Kralove (CZ). The sarrusophone is a double reed instrument made of metal with conical tubing. The sarrusophone family includes a large range going from sopranino to contrabass. The most important members are the contrabasses in C and Eb, in the shape of a spiral that remembers the ophicleide and this is a clue for a presumed continuity of the two instruments in band field. The sarrusophone was patented and launched by the French maker Pierre-Louis Gautrot in 1856 on the original idea by his compatriot Pierre-Auguste Sarrus, famous band conductor. He wanted to substitute oboes, bassoons, and ophicleides in marching bands, because they were considered inadequate to be played outdoor because of their weak sound intensity. As soon as it was in commerce, considerable analogies between sarrusophone and saxophone (designed ten years before, in 1846) emerged, as regards range (about three octaves), machinery, and fingering. So a legal litigation between Gautrot and Sax arose. The sarrusophone was widely used in marching bands in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in North America till the beginning of 20th century, when it fell into disuse in favour of reed contrabass, tuba, and bass saxophone. Probably, the causes were the less practicality of double reed and the better timber quality of saxophone, clearer and less harsh. The orchestral literature is circumscribed to single experiences, nullifying, since the beginning, the attempt to substitute the contrabassoon with the sarrusophone. For example, we remember Paul Dukas who, in one of the first versions of his symphonic poem The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (1897), delegated the very beginning of the famous danse macabre to the sarrusophone. More recently, the sarrusophone has been rediscovered in genres and placed that are, at first analysis, improbable: for example the contributions in jazz music by the saxophonist and clarinetist Sidney Bechet, in rock music by the eccentric Frank Zappa, and by Bruce Broughton for the soundtrack of the western movie Tombstone.
I. 72. Natural trumpet in A made of hard-drawn brass with single twine pipe and cylindrical tubing, branded: F. PERINET / 31 rue COPERNIC 31 / PARIS. Instrument datable to the last decades of 19th century, made by François Pèrinet, creator of the piston valve machine for brass instruments, machinery even now used for these instruments. The instrument is 506mm (19.9”) long without mouthpiece and the narrow twine pipe is long 384mm (15.1”).
I. 73. Bass trumpet in Bb, Italian, made of natural brass, dating back to the first decades of 20th century. On the bell there is the maker’s name carved: A. CARNAZZI / VERCELLI. The instrument presents three rotary valves and a little original mouthpiece with small shank. The total length is 619mm (24.35”) including the mouthpiece.
I. 74. Sopranino saxhorn in Eb, branded: RAMPONE / & / CAZZANI / MILANO, and made during the first decades of 20th century. This instrument was used in Vessellian bands, mainly in Apulia, to imitate the soprano voice in transcriptions of operas for wind bands.
I. 75. Bass trumpet in Bb, Italian, made of natural brass, dating back to the first decades of 20th century. On the bell there are the names of the maker: lyre / DITTA / G. DELL’ANNO & FIGLI / PREMIATA FABBRICA / STRUMENTI MUSICALI / NAPOLI / five-pointed star and of the owner: Cosimo Arnesano. The instrument shows three buttons with Perinet machinery and a small original mouthpiece with short shank. The total length is 638mm (25.1”) including the mouthpiece.
I. 76. Post horn in Bb, probably made in Germany, dating back to mid 19th century. This instrument was provided to coachmen assigned to transport post and people. With it, the postilions warned to go on board, of their arrival, and they signalled about the state of the roads and the possible presence of pedestrians. The instrument is made of three brass volutes with a single central weld joint, the diameter of the bell is 128mm (5.05”), while the total length with the mouthpiece is 359mm (14.15”).
I. 77. German normaphon in Bb with rotary valves machinery. The normaphon is a sort of trumpet with curve bell and the mouthpiece like the saxophone has, created by Richard Oskar Heber (1872-1938) in Markneukirchen. Between the 1900 and the 1935 he made brass instruments with the brand Norma-band in Schützenstrasse 36, Markneukirchen, and promoted the normaphon as something appropriate for 'Jazz-Band und sonstige Effekt-Kapellen'. About 100 Normaphons were made from 1924-1925 to 1930, and were distributed though wholesaler like CA Wunderlich in Siebenbrunn, RO Adler, Johannes Adler and CG Glier in Markneukirchen, Ammon Gläser in Erlbach, and MJ Kalashen in New York. This is an anonymous instrument but it is almost certainly attributable to Julius Rudolph, brass maker in Gotha (Thuringia), who, until 1930, made these instruments with rotary valves machinery.
I. 78. Bass trombone in F marked: ORSI / MILANO. It is nickel-plated, has four Perinet valves and is long mm. 941. The instrument can be dated to the third quarter of the twentieth century and was mainly used in military bands.
I. 79. Military trumpet built in the third quarter of the twentieth century and marked in an oval: FABBRICA STRUMENTI MUSICALI / Kalison / MILANO. The instrument has a single piston and is high mm. 484 without a mouthpiece. Two workers who worked for the firm Bottali, in 1927, founded the Riboni - Benicchio. In 1953, Mr. Benicchio died and his son Angelo took over the farm and founded in 1955 the company Kalison, which continued production until 2005 year when closed.
I. 80. Natural glass trumpet in G, anonymous but probably produced by Lodelinsart and Chênee glass blowers in Wallonia (southern Belgium) and dated to the second half of the 19th century. The instrument looks like a long, almost cylindrical glass tube that forms four twists, an internal mouthpiece just mentioned and ends in a large, flattened pavilion. The height of the trumpet is mm. 360, the approximate length of the mouthpiece to the bell is cm. 233 and this has a diameter of mm. 145.
I. 81. French piston cornet, built in the last decade of the nineteenth century. On the bell is engraved: five medals / in strip Mᴼᴺ MULLERON. RESPAUD / FONDĖE EN 1859 / FOIRNISSEUR DELL’ARMĖE / CHAPUIS SUCᴿ / 12 PASSAGE DE L’HOTEL DIEU / LYON / / five-pointed star. Joseph Molleron (1816-1894) was born in Lyon. After a stay in Paris, where he married in 1840, he returned to Lyon as a musical instruments builder at 7 rue du Buisson, and then at no. 23 of rue Bonneveaux. Widowed widower, remarried in 1851 and moved to rue Longue n. 29. In 1859 he created the Molleron company which will produce mainly brasses. He sold his company around 1888 to Jean Marie Respaud and died in Lyon in 1894. Jean Marie Respaud (1836-1902) was born in Saint Quirc in Ariège. He was 52 years old when he took over the Maison Molleron and moved the venue to the 12th passage of the Hotel Dieu in Lyon. He died in 1902 at age 65 in the Bron. His only daughter Marie Cécile Respaud born in 1883 was married in 1902 with Marius Chapuis, an employee born in Lyon in 1876, who at the end of the nineteenth century assumed the leadership of the house, then became a dealer of musical instruments until his death, in 1927. The instrument, in E-flat, is in nickel-plated brass, has three Perinèt pistons and the water key on the general pump.
I. 82. Trumpet ottavino (piccolo, sopranino) in B flat, Italian, marked on the bell: MADE IN ITALY / KALISON and built in 1935 in Milan. These instruments, together with the trombone in C acute and the small clarinet in B flat, are part of a small production of Alziati or Bottali, put on sale by Kalison in the '50s and then taken up in very few specimens in the' 70s. The instrument is in lacquered brass, it has three Perinèt valves, the pumps are not extractable, it is high, including the mouthpiece, mm. 267 and the bell has a diameter of mm. 65.
I. 83. Snake Trumpet, built in the early decades of the '900. It is branded A. Squaglia / Firenze. Altero Squaglia author, builder and restorer active in Florence in the first half of the 900, at a young age, he worked together with Pupeschi, Onerati and other Florentine builders to then devote himself to the construction of instruments with a particular design. This is a natural trumpet in B flat, in brass. The length is cm. 102 while the diameter of the bell is cm. 17. The pipe is barely conical and has four convexities with alternating semicircles that make it resemble a snake.
J. 2. Italian Oboe made during the first decade of 20th century, branded Romeo Orsi / MILANO. Three pieces of ebony. The length of the upper body is 231mm (9.1”), the lower body is 236mm (9.3”), and the bell is 127mm (5”). The instrument has a Prestini machinery with 14 keys and 5 rings made of nickel silver.
J. 4. Czechoslovakian oboe, beginning of 20th century. The instrument, in C, is made of three pieces of ebony, all branded Alois Zmitko / Louny. This maker operated in Laun from 1894 to 1933. The instrument, with thirteen silvered keys and two rings, has a strange shape that recalls the musette with the total length of 57cm (22.45”).
J. 5. Cor anglais in F with bent shape, French, in three pieces of painted maple with the upper and the lower bodies covered with leather and golden decorations. The instrument, 755mm (29.7”) long without staple, presents three ivory rods and eight keys made of brass, six of them are hinged on brass mountings and two on mountings obtained in relief from the wood. The pieces are branded: tower / TRIEBERT / A PARIS. The instrument is datable to the second decade of 19th century: in fact, in 1804 Georg Ludwig Wihlelm Triébert emigrated to Paris where he made instruments, soon becoming the most famous and wanted maker of oboes and cor anglais. The bell, pear-shaped as usual, shows two holes.
J. 24. Clarinet in Bb, Italian, ca. 1915, machinery with Böehm system. Mouthpiece and 4 pieces made of ebony, with brand: lyre / Giuseppe Thaon / Torino / five-pointed star. 13 keys and 2 rings made of nickel silver, original case made of wood and leather. Thaon operated in Turin from 1911 to 1926.
J. 25. Clarinet in C, Italian, 1920 ca. The instrument, made of ebony, is made of four pieces and the mouthpiece, all branded: lyre / RAMPONE / MILANO / BREVETTATO / monogram RC, only on the bell is also carved in oval: A. RAMPONE / Ditte Riunite / B. CAZZANI. The machinery, with Böehm system, presents 13 keys and two metal rings. Total length without mouthpiece 518mm (20.4”).
J. 26. Clarinet in A, German, made in around 1935, Oehler type machinery with 18 keys and 5 rings made of silver. The instrument is made of 4 ebony pieces and the mouthpiece. All the pieces have a B than the brand: WURLITZER / FRITZ / ERLBACH V. serial number 185, original case.
J. 27. Clarinet in Bb made of ebony by Wenzel Mach during the last years of 19th century. The instrument is made of ebony, four pieces and the mouthpiece; it presents Müeller machinery with fourteen keys and two rings made of nickel-plated metal. The brand is: imperial eagle / W. MACH / CHOTEC / B / lyre. The length is 619mm (24.35”) including mouthpiece; mouthpiece cover made of wood.
J. 28. Clarinet in Bb, French, made during the second half of 20th century. Four ebony pieces and the mouthpiece, branded N / NOBLET / Paris. The instrument has a machinery with Böehm system with 23 closed-plugging keys. The instrument is 593mm (23.35”) long without the mouthpiece, while the barrel is 66mm (2.6”).
J. 29. Metal clarinet in Bb, made of nickel-plated brass during the second quarter of 20th century by Beare & Son, and branded on the bell: EMPIRE SERIES / B & S / TORONTO. The instrument presents a Böehm system machinery with 15 keys and 6 rings. Mouthpiece made of ebony branded B & H (Boosey & Hawkes).
J. 30. A-flat piccolo clarinet. Italian, first half of 20th century, anonymous maker. Three ebonised wood pieces: mouthpiece, bell, and body (together with the barrel), keys made of nickel.
J. 31. Alto clarinet in Eb, made in Paris by Henry Selmer in mid 20th century. Upper and lower bodies made of ebony with neck and bell made of nickel-plated brass, machinery with Böehm system, descending to F#.
J. 32. Bassett horn in F, France, 20th century, descending to F. Upper and lower bodies made of ebony with neck and bell made of nickel-plated brass. Branded on every piece: lyre / BUFFET / Crampon and Cie. / A PARIS, monogram BC / MADE IN FRANCE. The instrument presents a Böehm system machinery with 27 nickel-plated metal keys.
J. 33. Bass clarinet made of ebony and silvered metal, first decades of 20th century. The caption impressed on the bell is: [double-headed eagle in coat of arms] / SOC. AN. / W. STOWASSER'S SOHNE / PREMIATA E PRIVILEGIATA FABBRICA / DI ISTRUMENTI MUSICALI / VERONA / VIA MENTANA / [eagle]. The Stowasser manufacturer, with offices in Graslitz, was opened in 1860 by Wenzel Stowasser’s three sons (from here the name "SOHNE") and operated until 1945, year when it was expropriated. Numerous branches where opened, some sort of shops, in many other cities in the world, in particular in Verona, Italy, from about 1900 till 1941. But the instruments were always supplied by the mother company. This instrument is Bohemian: in fact, the manufacturers in the region of Markneukirchen and Graslitz were much organised and exported the huge production. The instrument, with three tone holes, shows a Müller machinery with 23 keys.
J. 34. Contrabass clarinet, in Eb, Italy, made in Milan by Orsi during the first half of 20th century. Entirely made of nickel-plated brass. Brand on the bell: ORSI / MILANO.
J. 35. Tárogató, Hungary, 1930s. Instrument with a peculiar sound, created by the instrument maker J. V. Schunda in 1865, for the first performance of Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde.
J. 37. Italian oboe, made during the last decades of 19th century, branded: lyre / MAINO & ORSI / MILANO / monogram MO. Three ebony pieces, French system machinery with thirteen keys and two rings made of nickel silver, and six holes; original case. The instrument is identified with the number 124 in 1898 catalogue.
J. 38. E-flat piccolo clarinet, made during the second half of 19th century, every piece is branded METZLER & C° LIM.TD / LONDON. The instrument presents the Albert machinery with fifteen keys and two rings; it is made of five rosewood pieces including the mouthpiece and the mouthpiece cover also made of rosewood. The total length is 475mm (18.7”).
J. 41. Clarinet in Bb, Italian, made during the second half of 19th century, branded: lyre / F. ROTH / MILAN / six-petaled flower. The instrument is made of four pieces of ebony (total length 574mm – 22.6”) and the mouthpiece; it presents a simplified Böehm system machinery with thirteen keys (one broken) and two rings.
J. 42. German clarinet in Bb made of rosewood, first decades of 20th century. The instrument, made of four pieces and the mouthpiece, has Albert machinery with fifteen keys and four rings, and it is 601mm (61 + 199 + 231 + 110) (23.65” = 2.4” + 7.85” + 9.1” + 4.3”) long without the mouthpiece (Italian, made of ebony, branded sistema brevettato / R. ORSI). The brand is: imperial eagle in circle / “KARADL” / SONORA / 18. This brand was adopted by Oscar Adler until 1928 together with Hermann and Karl Jordan.
J. 43. Clarinet in Bb, four pieces, mouthpiece, and mouthpiece cover made of rosewood, branded: six-pointed star / E. ALBERT / A BRUXELLES / six-pointed star. Eugène Albert (1842 – 1895) was the founder of a dynasty of musical instrument makers, he was an inventor and patented numerous instruments; among them, in 1862, the clarinet with thirteen keys and the machinery that has his name. This instrument, datable to around 1880, presents Albert machinery but with fifteen keys and two rings, it is 639mm (25.15”) long, mouthpiece 75mm (2.95”), barrel 51mm (2”), upper body 199mm (7.85”), lower body 217mm (8.55”), bell 97mm (3.8”).
J. 44. Bass clarinet made during the second decade of 20th century and branded: lyre / in oval F.lli A. M. Bottali / MILANO just beneath: brand / G. Pelitti while the lower body is branded by the vendor: five-petaled flower / ARNALDO BORGANI / brand / MACERATA / five-petaled flower. The instrument has the upper and the lower bodies made of ebony while the neck and the bell are made of metal, and it has 22 keys with three tone hole and Müller machinery.
J. 45. Clarinet in Bb, four ebony pieces and mouthpiece, branded: lyre / (in oval) P. RONDONI / VERONA / five-pointed star. Paolo Rondoni was Santucci’s successor and operated in Verona since 1914 in 15 via Stalla: this instrument is datable to the third decade of 20th century; it presents a simplified Böehm system machinery with fourteen keys (one broken) and two rings.
J. 46. Clarinet in Bb, four ebony pieces and mouthpiece, branded on the barrel and on the upper body: lyre / (in oval) TITO BELATI / PERUGIA / five-pointed star / BREVETTATO while the lower body and the bell are branded lyre / (in oval) F.lli A. M. Bottali / MILANO. Tito Belati operated in Perugia branding the instruments by Rampone & Cazzani from the second half of 19th century. This instrument is datable to the second decade of 20th century. The instrument presents the simplified Böehm system machinery with fourteen keys (three broken) and two rings.
J. 47. Clarinet in Bb, four ebony pieces and mouthpiece, branded: lyre / in oval F.lli A. M. BOTTALI / MILANO. Antonio Bottali succeeded to Ferdinando Roth in 1898 and managed the manufacturer keeping, during a short period of time, the brand: “Ditta Ferd. Roth Flli. A.M. Bottali", later a branch was opened at the address: Succ., 6 Piazza Andrea Doria. The Bottalis, in addition to Ferdinando Roth’s manufacturer, took over Luigi Alziati’s and Giuseppe Pelitti’s manufacturers. This instrument is datable to the second decade of 20th century. It shows the simplified Böehm system machinery with fourteen keys (one broken) and two rings.
J. 48. Clarinet in Bb, four ebony pieces and mouthpiece, branded: five-pointed star / (in oval) BUFFET / Crampon and Cie. / A PARIS / five-pointed star. The instrument presents the simplified Böehm system machinery with thirteen keys (two broken) and two rings, it was made during the second half of 19th century; it is 565mm (22.25”) long without mouthpiece and the wood presents a fine pale fiddleback.
J. 49. Clarinet in Bb, four pieces and mouthpiece made of Plexiglas with metal keys, branded: V. Kohlert’s / Sons / Graslitz / Bb / five-pointed star. The instrument presents the Böehm system machinery, with fourteen keys and six rings. This instrument was made in 1940 by Rudolf, Daniel, and Franz Josef Kohlert, Vincent’s sons, and was used in Rommel’s fanfare in Afrikakorps band.
J. 50. Clarinet in Bb, four ebony pieces and mouthpiece, branded on the barrel and on the upper body: lyre / (in oval) PARISI / TORINO / five-pointed star. This instrument is datable to the second decade of 20th century. The instrument presents the simplified Böehm system machinery with fourteen keys and two rings. Silvio Parisi was a vendor for Rampone & Cazzani manufacturer and traded until 1930.
J. 51. Bass grand clarone (bass clarinet) in Bb, branded: six-pointed flower / MALDURA / MILANO / six-pointed flower / BREVETTO / Si b. This instrument, made in around 1880 by Alessandro Maldura, operating from 1850 to 1914, who patented the bass grand clarone in Eb, has a Böehm machinery with seventeen keys (two missing) and a ring made of nickel-plated metal, it is made of two rosewood pieces, neck, and metal bell (probably not original).
J. 52. Alto clarinet in Eb, made in Milan by Orsi during the second decade of 20th century. The body is made of two ebony pieces; on them the brand is impressed: coat of arms of Savoy / (in oval) Prof. ROMEO ORSI / Milano / trade (two bears) mark / ESPORTAZIONE MONDIALE, the neck and the bell are made of nickel-plated brass and on the last is impressed: coat of arms of Savoy / DITTA / Prof. ROMEO ORSI / PREMIATA E PRIVILEGIATA FABBRICA / DI IINSTRUMENTS MUSICALI / Milano – Italia / trade (two bears) mark / ESPORTAZIONE MONDIALE. Machinery with Böehm system, descending to F# with eighteen keys and one ring.
J. 54. Clarinet in Bb, four ebony pieces and the mouthpiece, branded on the barrel and on the upper body: five-pointed star / L. ZELWEGER / BIELLA / five-pointed star. This instrument is datable to the second decade of 20th century. The instrument presents the simplified Böehm system machinery with fifteen keys and two rings. Luigi Zelweger, operating in Biella from 1882 to 1931, was an important band conductor and composer of military marches, the most known is dedicated to Conte Carlo Borromeo and was presented at the Esposizione Nazionale in Milan. In 1890 he founded the instrument factory with the same name, operating until 1928. In the wide production of this maker there were also saxophones and brass instruments. Nowadays his instruments are become very rare.
J. 55. Contrabass clarinet in Bb descending to D, made of metal in the shape of a paperclip, French, made in 1950s. In 1902 Georges Leblanc took over the Noblet factory and, just after the First World War, together with his son Léon organised the G. Leblanc Cie. as a experimental laboratory for the acoustic research and for the development of new materials and more accurate production methods. Between the third and the fourth decade of the century, he made metal paperclip clarinets, an octobass, three octoaltos, some contrabasses, and some contra-altos. This instrument has serial number 259, that is it has been made in 1940s, the brand on the bell is LEBLANC / PARIS on the lyre inscribed in a rhombus. The range is the same of a contrabassoon with the lower note as a piano; machinery with Böehm system. The instrument is made of nickel-plated brass, the four separable pieces are: bell, barrel, upper body, and lower body.
J. 58. Clarinet in Bb, model Wonder, double-chambered, entirely made of silvered nickel with keys and rings made of golden nickel silver, made of two pipes: the exterior reproduce the shape of a wooden clarinet while the interior the real bore. Double-chambered instruments were created to go along with the need of the musicians who used to play wooden instruments and were reluctant to play little metal clarinets. On the bell there is the brand in a laurel wreath: MADE BY / C G CONN / ELKHART / IND. with serial number # 2471 that allows to date it back to 1896. The instrument is made of four pieces and presents an Albert machinery with fourteen keys and two rings; it is 570mm (22.45”) high without mouthpiece.
J. 59. Italian oboe, branded: <coat of arms of Savoy > / (in oval) PROF. ROMEO ORSI / MILANO / TRADE <two bears> MARK / ESPORT. MONDIALE. The instrument, in three ebony pieces, is 603mm (23.75”) long and presents a machinery with sixteen keys, two rings, and three free holes. The making is datable to the third decade of 20th century because, at Romeo’s death, his son Lorenzo used the brand Prof. R. Orsi.
J. 60. Italian oboe branded: coat of arms of Milan / (in oval) MAINO E ORSI / MILANO / monogram MO / PROF. ORSI. Paolo Maino and Romeo Orsi worked together from 1880 to Maino’s death in 1902. Later, the brand was maintained till 1918. The instrument, datable to around the first decade of 20th century, is made of three ebony pieces; it is 564mm (22.2”) long and presents sixteen keys, three rings, and two free holes.
J. 61. French oboe, made in around 1960, in three grenadilla pieces, 603mm (23.75”) long; it is branded F. LORÉE / five-pointed star / PARIS serial number ZZ79. The Lorée manufacturer was founded by François Lorée, worker for the famous Triebért manufacturer, at Triebért’s death. Since then it is synonym of perfection and competence in making oboes.
J. 62. French oboe in three ebony pieces, branded: “ FRANCE “ / S <anchor> C / in oval SIOUR / Chapelan / PARIS / monogram FC. Fernand Chapelan was the successor of Godfroy Aîné and operated in La Couture between 1890 and 1917. This instrument presents a simplified machinery with eleven simple keys, one double key, and three rings, and it is 561mm (22.1”) long.
J. 63. Bass clarinet with double body made in around 1890 by Agostino Rampone entirely of silvered metal and made of two pipes: the exterior reproduces the shape of a wooden clarinet and the interior the real bore of metal instruments. Double-chambered instruments were patented by Agostino Rampone (1843 - 1897) in 1879 to go along with the need of the musicians who used to play wooden instruments and were reluctant to play thinner metal instruments. Rampone made all the instruments of woodwind family with the technique of double chamber, but only the flutes and the clarinets were well received. The bass clarinets were made in a very low number. This instrument has: A. Rampone / Milano carved on the bell and on the upper body, and on the lower body the number 12370. The instrument, in four pieces and mouthpiece made of ebony, presents the machinery with Böehm system with 22 keys and three tone holes.
J. 64. Clarinet in Bb, Italian, branded on the bodies and on the bell: lyre / INDUST. ITAL. / ISTRUM. MUSIC. / CASTELNUOVO S. / five-pointed star, the case is branded: SOCIETA' ANONYMOUS / INDUSTRIA ITALIANA ISTRUMENTI MUSICALI / (S.A.I.M.) / QUARNA NOVARA while the barrel, not original, is branded: ten-petaled flower / RAMPONE / MILANO / BREVETTATO / lyre. The clarinet comes from the manufacturer founded in Castelnuovo Scrivia by Mario Gilardi with some "deserters" of the Rampone in Quarna, which had short life with the name SAIIIM. It had their own catalogue and traded on their own. The instrument is datable to 1933 during the short time in Quarna, before the final bankruptcy, and it is testified by the brand. Later (1934), the equipments were taken over by Alfredo Rampone who branded with his name. This instrument, with Böehm system machinery, is made of four ebony pieces (the barrel is branded Borgani) and the mouthpiece; it has seventeen keys and five rings, and it is 618mm (24.35”) long without mouthpiece.
J. 65. Oboe made of metal branded on the bell MOENNIG, serial number 6266, made by Gebrüder Mönnig, Hans and Fritz (1875 - 1950), who from 1928 to 1950 established a big instrument manufacturer specialised in making clarinets, oboes, and bassoons made of metal or Plexiglas. The instrument has a “French” machinery with four rings.
J. 66. Oboe d’amore, French, in A, branded: BREVETE / tower with three battlements / TRIEBERT / A PARIS. The tower with only three battlements dates back the instrument, made by Frédéric Triebert (1813-1878), Guillame’s son, between 1843 and 1848. The oboe is made of three rosewood pieces, 657 (25.85”) long without staple. On the bell there is a sound hole, there are fifteen keys, three rings, a single hole, and a double hole.
J. 67. Alto saxophone, Italian, made during the first quarter of 20th century, branded: Five-pointed star / lyre / premiato stabil / A RAMPONE / MILANO / Esportazione Mondiale / Five-pointed star / A. RAMPONE / B. CAZZANI / 635. The instrument is made of brass and presents 23 keys and a double tone hole.
J. 68. Baritone saxophone, French, made in around 1885 by Arsène Zoë Lecomte. This maker, operating in Paris from 1859 to 1892, was honoured with many rewards, among all the Legion of Honour (1888) for having applied the Böehm system to saxophone keys and the insertion of the double tone hole. The instrument, in Eb, is branded on the bell: A. Lecomte & Cie / Paris / 3518, it is entirely made of brass and presents 17 keys with double tone hole.
J. 69. Alto saxophone Chu Berry in C, branded: MADE BY / CONN / ELKHART ltd / IND. U.S.A. while the serial number is: PATD DECB. 1914 / 119954 / 131912 / L, dating it back to 1924. This instrument, made of nickel-plated brass presents an automatic tone hole and a particularly warm and deep sound suitable for jazz music.
J. 70. Alto saxophone in Eb made during the fourth decade of 20th century, branded: A. RAMPONE / QUARNA NOVARA, serial number 10083, instrument made by Alfonso Rampone, the cousin of the more famous Agostino, who from 1932 to 1974 established one of his manufacturers in Quarna. He made high quality instruments (exportation model) almost all intended to exportation in USA, Australia, and New Zealand. This instrument, made of nickel-plated brass, with the interior of the bell that is chromed, is made of high quality brass, body in "tombac" (brass with high percentage of copper). Silver-plated keys, body, and bell. Gold-plated inner bell, 24 kt. Carved and hand-wrought bell.
J. 71. Tenor sax branded: 225 / Millerau & Cie Brevetes / 29, Rue des Trois, Bornes Paris / Esposition Universelle 1867 / 1° Medaille. François Millerau worked for Besson till 1861, than worked on his own and the next year took over Sax’s patent for the production of saxophones, bringing about, in 1887, some variations known as Millerau system. This instrument, datable to 1870, is made of nickel-plated brass, it has a double tone hole and 17 keys.
J. 72. Tenor sax branded: DOLNET / PARIS. The serial number 88667 M70 dates it back to 1975 M70 series. The instrument, made of lacquered brass, presents twenty-four keys and the automatic tone hole, and the bell points towards the player’s left.
J. 73. Soprano sax in Bb branded: six-pointed star / P. PUPESCHI & F / FIRENZE / six-pointed star. The instrument is datable to the second decade of 20th century. Pupo Pupeschi [Marti (Pisa) 1860, Florence 1932] opened an instrument manufacturer in Florence in around 1885 in Via del Giglio, then his sons Renato and Aldo worked with him and in 1920 he had about 50 workers. Many patents are linked to his name, for changes in woodwinds machinery, in particular clarinets, and he often sold his patents to important foreign makers, like Mahillon, Hawkes & Son, or Vinzent Kohlert & Söhne. Aldo associated in the name P.Pupeschi & figlio and he continued the enterprise after 1932. In 1928 the manufacturer was moved, with about 35 workers, to 80 Via Corridoni where it was closed in 1957. The sax is made of nickel-plated brass and presents the double tone hole. The mouthpiece is not original.
J. 74. Curved clarinet of metal, in Bb, made in around 1930. The brand on the bell is: PEDLER / AMERICAN / ELKHART IND. Serial number 35853. Pedler manufacturer was founded in 1919 by Harry Walter Pedler (born in England in 1872 and dead in 1950 in Elkhart). He worked for Rudall Carte & Co. till 1905, and then moved to Elkhart where he worked for Conn. In 1916, Harry Pedler founded in Elkhart, with Gronert, the American Manufacturing Company. In 1919, after Gronert’s death, Harry Pedler changed the name of manufacturer into Harry Pedler Co. and operated until 1936. The instrument has a rightward curve like horns have; it presents a machinery with Böehm system with 17 keys and 5 rings.
J. 75. Clarinet in A (saxonette) branded in oval: M. Schier / O. Hohenelbe. Hohenelbe (nowadays Hořejší Vrchlabí in Czech Republic) is in Riesengebirge, near the source of the river Elbe, and Schier was a vendor who branded instruments produced in Germany. The instrument is datable to mid 19th century, it has the 454mm (17.85”) long body made of ebony, the neck and the bell made of brass, and the mouthpiece branded G. Mollenhauer / & Söhne / Cassel. The machinery has ten metal keys, six holes, and, embossed, the hole for the right little finger.
J. 76. E-flat piccolo clarinet, made in around 1850, every piece is branded monogram SL / LEFÉVRE / PARIS / BREVETĖ / five-petaled flower. Simon Lefévre succeded in 1844 to François, who, since 1812, managed the manufacturer with the same name. This, in 1855, was ceded to Noblet. The instrument presents the Müller machinery with thirteen keys and two rings, it is made of four rosewood pieces and the mouthpiece, made of ebony, is branded Maino & Orsi. The total length is 478mm (18.8”).
J. 77. Italian clarinet in A, branded: diapason on laurel leaves / RAMPONE / MILANO / BREVETTATO / monogram ER. The instrument, made of ebonised rosewood, presents a Böehm system machinery with fifteen keys and two rings. It has a total length of 706mm (27.8”), the barrel is 66mm (2.6”), the upper body is 208mm (8.2”), the lower body is 254 (10”), and the bell is 101mm (3.95”). Egidio Rampone (1872-1937) succeeded his father Agostino in 1897 till 1912 when associated with Cazzani later marrying his daughter.
J. 78. Contrabassoon of “Premiata Fabbrica Italiana Istrumenti Musicali Edoardo Sioli Milano” lyre / E. SIOLI / MILANO / five-pointed star. The instrument is datable to the third decade of 20th century and it was played in RAI Orchestra in Milan by Prof. Freschi Mario. The instrument is made of red maple, it is descending to C so it has the wooden bell upwards, moreover it presents twenty metal keys, three curves, and a long bocal.
J. 79. anonymous Tárogató, Hungarian, built in the early decades of the twentieth century for a left-handed player. The peculiarity of this instrument is the inversion of the right hand keys with those of the left so that the player uses the right for the top piece and the left hand to the lower one. The instrument is etched fruit of wood, has three ferrules keys and ten (five for the upper body and five for the lower one) of brass. The mouthpiece is probably not original and the bell presents ten soundholes including one particularly large. Total length without mouthpiece is mm. 673.
J. 80. Italian bassoon branded: E. SIOLI / MILANO / five-petaled flower, datable to second decade of 20th century. The instrument is made of varnished maple; it shows French machinery with five holes and twenty one metal keys some of which are blocked by cork pieces. The dimensions are: 433mm (17.05”) for the boot, 529mm (20.8”) for the longest piece, 469mm (18.45”) for the wing, and 362mm (14.25”) for the bell. Edoardo Sioli was the most important Italian bassoon and contrabassoon make during the early 20th century.
J. 81. Italian bass saxophone in Bb branded: coat of arms of Savoy / PRIMARIA / PREMIATA FABBRICA / Fᴸᴸᴵ A. M. BOTTALI / MILANO / (ITALIA) / seven-pointed asterisk / MARCA / FERDᴼ ROTH. The instrument is made of nickel-plated brass. It has the original mouthpiece and a double back hole. It descends to B. Antonio Bottali replaced Ferdinando Roth in 1898 keeping the brand Bottali and Roth for some years, so this instrument is datable between the end of 19th century and the first years of 20th century.
J. 82. Chalumeau tenor in C, popular, anonymous, dated to the second half of the eighteenth century. It is a single reed instrument with seven holes front and one behind, has the extension divided into two scales: the basic sounds and the other harmonics, in two different shades (C, G) that were obtained by means of a greater pressure lips on the reed. This family consisted of four types (soprano, alto, tenor, bass) for a total extension of only three octaves. The use of Chalumeau was born in France and then spread to Germany by the end of the seventeenth century when the manufacturer of woodwind instruments Johann Christian Denner (Leipzig 1655, Nuremberg 1707) introduced the transformations on the instrument that led to the birth of the clarinet. The instrument has an internal cylindrical bore, widened only in the final stretch. The total length is mm. 651, the mouthpiece, of coarse workmanship and very thick, is long mm. 107 while the diameter of the bell is mm. 52. The upper part of the body has a ring made of bone while in the bottom remains a golden frieze.
J. 83. Russian bassoon, French, dating from the fourth decade of the nineteenth century, in C, built in maple with six holes and three keys, two rings, and brass bell. The breech is high mm. 344, the top piece and the wing mm. 275, there is a long bore of mouthpiece with two lugs and a zoomorphic bell (dragon-shaped head Windsucker) for total of mm. 1045. All parts and dials are marked: Vᵉ Sautermeister / & / Muller / Lyon. This factory was active from 1830 to 1836. The Russian bassoon is the most picturesque among the bass cornett, equaling the visual interest of the serpent d’église, it is a military tool that often features a fire-breathing dragon's head painted on its bell. The instrument, invented around 1780 by J.J. Regibo in Lille, consists of four or five sections similar to those of the conventional bassoon, a conical internal bore, a dragon's head but has a brass mouthpiece. The term Russian bassoon (Russian Basson) is thought to be a linguistic evolution of "Prusse Bassoon" caused by the use of the instrument between the Prussian military bands. The instrument was popular in France and Belgium with a group of manufacturers centered in Lyon including Couturier, Cuvillier, Dubois, Savary, Galander, Jeantet, Sautermeister, and Tabard.
J. 84. Bass clarinet built in the third decade of the twentieth century, marked: RAMPONE / CAZZANI / MILANO only on the final part of the lower body that was probably intended to be sold by a stencil. The instrument has the upper and lower body in ebony while neck and bell are metallic and has 23 keys and the Böehm mechanics.
J. 85. Bass saxophone in SI bem branded engraved on the bell: PROF. / ROMEO / ORSI / MILANO / ITALY. The instrument has automatic spokesperson, it has the Böehm system, 22 keys, down to B flat, ascending to the F # and is lacquered. No serial number but can be dated to the third quarter of the twentieth century.
J. 86. Piccolo clarinet in B flat. brass, stamped on the bell: MADE IN ITALY / KALISON. The brand seems inconsistent because Kalison has never produced clarinets. Similar instruments were built by Luigi Alziati at the end of the nineteenth century, but they were sold very few copies. The companies of Alziati and Roth were detected, in the early '900 by Antonio Bottali. In 1927, one of his former employee, Battista Benicchio, founded the Riboni - Benicchio; in 1953 he was succeeded by his son Angelo in company until 1955, when it closed the Riboni-Benicchio and founded the Kalison company. You would think that would have been an old stock, old Alziati instruments, then branded Kalison. This instrument has eight keys (one missing), and two rings: it is a system model Albert simplified, compared to the traditional clarinet with 13 keys and two rings, allows you to put your fingers on the instrument without much trouble. Total length without the mouthpiece, it is mm. 294. The clarinets in piccolos metal are relatively rare although, in the first half of the nineteenth century, some models were manufactured in Austria and France (in F) by the manufacturer of Lyon Sautermeister.
J. 87. Rothphone bass in Bb, double-reed, built in brass, invented by Ferdinando Roth (1815-1898) around 1870, but constructed and patented by his son-in-law, Antonio Bottali, who worked with him. He took the factory in 1898 at the death of Ferdinand by adopting the brand Roth & Bottali. The rothphones family (soprano, alto, tenor, baritone and bass) was presented by the brothers Amedeo and Mario Bottali, sons of Antonio, in 1911 at the International Music Congress of Rome. Subsequently these instruments were produced from 1937 to 1940 by ORSI of Milan under the name of saxorusophons. This specimen can be dated to 1896 (from serial number 21) and is marked: BREVETTO / BOTTALI / PREMIATA FABBRICA / FERDᴼ ROTH / MILANO / 21. The instrument is nickel plated, has the "automatic" spokesman, nineteen keys, descends to Bb and the insufflation cannula suitable for supporting a double reed similar to that of the sarrusophon.
J. 88. Grafton Alto Sax, serial number 11108 that allows us to date it to 1953. The instrument, in E-flat, has 21 brass keys plus the spokesman on the neck, it is branded: MADE IN / ENGLAND and PATENT NO. 604, 407 - 604, 418 / U. S. PAT.2471290 2551177 and presents the Perspex mouthpiece. The coverage of the last three keys of the bell is damaged. The Grafton alto saxophone was an injection-molded acrylic plastic with metal keys and neck, manufactured in London by Grafton and later by "John E. Dallas & Sons Ltd". Designed by Ettore (Hector) Sommaruga, an Italian who lived in London, the saxophone takes its name from "Grafton Way", the street where its store was located in the early 50s. The basic design of the saxophone was patented at the end of 1945, the specifications of the provisional patents (604,407 and 604,418) were requested on September 14, 1945 and a non-working prototype was shown for the first time in 1946. The choice of an acrylic plastic such as perspex was motivated by the much lower cost compared to brass and the ease of production rather than the improvement of the tonal qualities. Sommaruga did not have the necessary funding to complete the project but obtained financial support from Geoffrey Hawkes (from Boosey and Hawkes) and John E. Dallas. The instrument was finally sold to the public in 1950 at a price of £ 55, about half the cost of a conventional saxophone at the time. Hector left the company of Dallas in 1953 and moved to France where he ran a motel until his death in 1985. The company continued to produce saxophones until 1967. A prototype of tenor was also built, but its dimensions went beyond plastic production technology then available and a line of clarinets, but these had serious intonation difficulties and were rejected by the market. The production ended after about ten years, however some last examples were assembled from residual parts around 1967. All the tools, machineries and masks necessary to manufacture the Grafton were sold for scrap and subsequently destroyed in 1968. The marketing literature of the time described the Grafton as a "poem of the sounds in ivory and gold" for the very particular appearance conferred by the Italian style of the 50s and for the ivory body with brass reflections. The serial number on a Grafton appears in an unusual position: it is impressed on the main body of the saxophone (and highlighted in black) in the front, about 2 cm above the first front key that is operated by the left hand. The Grafton saxophone, despite the notoriety acquired by its use by Charlie Parker and Ornette Coleman, has never taken off among professionals due to a number of reasons: the acrylic plastic used for the body is fragile and can easily break or break away during normal use. Not only that, the Grafton used a non-standard spring mechanism to operate the keys and the spare parts were not readily available. The best-known Grafton player was Charlie Parker. In Toronto, May 1953, Charlie Parker and his quintet had to perform at Massey Hall, but Parker had engaged his saxophone. A Grafton representative (or the owner of the company, depending on the source) offered Parker a Grafton for that concert. Parker (credited as Charlie Chan because of contract issues) was fascinated by the "rough sound" and "spongy" mechanics of this Grafton and recorded "Jazz at Massey Hall" with Bud Powell, Dizzy Gillespie, Charles Mingus and Max Roach, even if through a low fidelity registration. The Grafton saxophone used by Parker (serial number 10265, therefore always in 1953) was sold by Christie's auction house in London in September 1994 for £ 93,500 pounds. The buyer was the American Jazz Museum, located in the hometown of Parker, in Kansas City, Missouri. Other famous saxophonists who used this instrument are John Dankworth, Ade Monsbourgh, David Bowie and Florian Trübsbach.
J. 90. Clarinet in B flat, Italian, datable to the first decade of the twentieth century, marked on the upper body: tuning fork on laurel leaves / RAMPONE / MILANO / BREVETTATO / monogram AT while on the final part of the lower body and on the bell there is the mark: RAMPONE / CAZZANI / MILANO. The ebony instrument features six-hole, Müller mechanism, fourteen keys and two rings. It has a total length of mm. 670, the barrel is mm. 63, the upper piece of mm. 182, the lower piece of mm. 238 and the bell of mm. 114.
J. 92. Clarinet in A, built in the third quarter of the 18th century. in five parts in boxwood plus the mouthpiece. It has five bone ferrules, five square brass keys and eight holes, seven of which are front and one back. Marked on the barrel: 3 / BIGLIONI / IN ROMA. On the upper and middle bodies: I / BIGLIONI / IN ROMA / A. on the lower body and on the bell there is the inscription: 5-pointed star / BIGLIONI / IN ROMA / I. The dimensions are: barrel mm. 69, upper body mm. 225, medium body mm. 98, lower body mm. 137 and bell mm. 114 for a total of mm. 717 including the mouthpiece. The factory, founded by Iacobus Biglioni (member of the Accademia di Santa Cecilia), was active in Rome since 1721. Later other members of the family are documented as makers and musicians such as Baldassarre (1719 - 1793) known as turner and successor of his father Gaspare. Two sons of Baldassarre, Domenico (1757 - 25 December 1828) was classified in 1827 as "fabbricatore d'istromenti"; Giovanni (1762 - 29 September 1838), Luigi (1797 - 1851) and Luigi, son of Domenico, were oboe players at the Accademia di Santa Cecilia while Giovanni played trombone with "the musicians of Campidoglio" from 1781 to 1793. From 1781 to 1827 the workshop was in via dei Banchi Vecchi 55.
J. 93. Double bass clarinet in B flat, metal, built around 1926 and marked on the bell: STAB. MUSIC. / DESIDERA / VERONA. Serial number 5942. Leonildo Desidera began working in Novara as a maker of musical instruments. From 1925 he moved, with his sons, first to Mantova and then to Verona, in via Zanella 1. He used Stowasser models and then changed the brand to Desidera e figli. This instrument, currently in disuse but widely used in the marching bands of the 50s, was placed at the centre of the band, together with the bass sax and the reed contrabass, allowing the first rows of clarinets to hear the bass. The mechanism is Böehm type simplified to 20 keys descending to D bem and has a height of mm. 1464.
K. 3. Turkish crescent, French, made in around mid 19th century for the French town of Chevrières, 50km (31.05mi) far from Paris. It is entirely made of brass and has on the top the writing Chevrières, from the top to the bottom there is a brass decoration in the shape of a bloom, then a lyre with two small bells, a little pagoda painted red with a sphere under it and much under a support in shape of a boat with 10 bells and 2 little stars, and, at the sides, two fabric pieces with a “C” on them. These instruments are part of marching bands performing “Turkish music” with typical percussions of Ottoman military bands.
K. 7. Military drum, French, made during the reign of Napoleon III. The two wooden hoops are painted, the upper is black and the lower is blue. The shell is made of copper while the snare strainer for the snare (a twine on the lower membrane) is made of brass. The snare is made of a double gut string that lands the sound a greater brilliance, doubling the vibrations, and giving the sound of the octave. The dimensions are: diameter 38cm (14.95”), height 27cm (10.6”). A string put between the two hoops and nine tension rods allow to tight the membranes.
K. 8. Snare drum, Italian, second half of 19th century. Copper shell, original leathers, and 6 tension rods with butterflies vaguely recalling the fleur-de-lis. The tension screw and the snare on the lower leather are missing. The drum is 165mm (6.5”) high, and its diameter is 320mm (12.6”).
K. 9. Sistrum of a military band in Gloucestershire (England), beginning of 20th century. This metallophone, similar to the xylophone, is often used in military bands because, thanks to a harness, can be carried in parade. This instrument has a wooden sound box, a cast iron armor, and 25 metal bars with a range of two octaves (from A3 to A5).
K. 10. Turkish cymbal for marching band made of brass, diameter 324mm (12.75”), branded ZILDJAN & CIE / CONSTANTINOPLE. Handle with a leather strap.
K. 11. Tubular bells for wind band, used by the marching band of Squinzano (Lecce) since 1926. The bells are eight (from C4 to C5), made of metal tubes with outer diameter measuring 19mm (0.75”) and an inner diameter measuring 17mm (0.65”). The lengths of the bells are: 618mm (24.35”), 584mm (33”), 550mm (21.65”), 527mm (20.75”), 497mm (19.55”), 473mm (18.6”), 445mm (17.1”), 430mm (16.9”) and they are contained in a metal support together with the wooden hammer.
K. 12. Gong for band used by the marching band of Squinzano (Lecce) since 1926. The instrument, anonymous, is made of a lenticular brass disk with diameter measuring 430mm (19.6”) and it is inserted in a metal support. The stick is made of wood with a cover made of pink fabric.
K. 13. Snare drum for marching bands, anonymous, datable between the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, used by Apulian marching bands. The two membranes are broken. The frame is made of pale wood while the borders and the four tension rods, with butterfly screws, are made of brass.
K. 16. Anonymous bass drum, built in the second half of the twentieth century and used in Salento bands. The instrument has two synthetic skins and five non-original rods. The frame is made of bent beech wood cm. 33, presents two vent holes and a handle for transportation.
K. 17. Italian kettledrum dating back to the first quarter of the twentieth century. The boiler is made of hand-wrought copper with a diameter of mm. 700 on which a donkey skin is stretched. The support is made of iron and has at its bottom the three feet and the intonation screw from which two support orders consist of five arms respectively, which by anchoring the first to the boiler and the second to the tension of the skin, allow to vary the tension of the skin. The instrument is high overall mm. 831.
K. 20. Small Italian kettledrum, built at the end of the 18th century. The boiler is made of hand-beaten copper while the supports and the six lateral triangular-shaped studs are made of brass. The tension of the leather is obtained by the iron hoop pulled by the six square-forged brass bolts that are tightened by an iron T-wrench. The instrument is screwed onto an iron support with three feet for a height of mm. 818, the diameter of the boiler is mm. 492 including the iron hoop for a depth of mm. 329, the vent hole is small and slightly lateral.