E. 1. Ivory flute probably made in Germany in about 1770. The instrument, conical, is in D, descending to D, it is made of four ivory pieces, a ring nut and three squared keys made of golden silver. One of the keys is mounted on an ivory mounting and it is original, while the other two, further (ca. 1820), are mounted on silver mounting. A is at 438 Hz; total length 604mm (23.75”); head joint 230mm (9.05”) with end pin; ending diameter 23mm (0.9”); upper body 145mm (5.7”); lower body 134mm (5.25”); foot 95mm (3.75”); ending diameter 15mm (0.6”); oval embouchure hole 10x8mm (0.4”x0.3”).
E. 2. Side-blown flute made of ivory, conical, in D descending to C. Four pieces branded: CAHUSAC / junior / LONDON. Cahusac jr. (Thomas) operated in London from 1781 to 1794 in 4 Great Newport Street and, with his family, he was the most important flute make of his time. The instrument presents 6 holes, 6 squared keys and 4 ring nuts made of finely chiselled silver, original case. Dimensions: total length 667mm (26.25”), head joint 230mm (9.05) with ending diameter 18mm (0.7”) and oval hole 12x10mm (0.5” x 0.4”), upper body 159mm (6.25”) with ending diameter 14mm (0.55”), lower body 121mm (4.75”) with ending diameter 12mm (0.45”), foot 157mm (6.2”) with ending diameter 11mm (0.45”).
E. 3. Stick-flute, in D and descending to D, probably a Coselschi make from Siena, made between the end of 18th century and the first decade of 19th century. The instrument, conical, is made of two pieces of boxwood carved in bamboo-cane shape, with foot (not original) and tuning pin made of ebony and bronze. On the body there are six holes and the hidden D-key. On the head joint, upon the embouchure hole, there are two more holes for the handle strap. A at 432 Hz; total length 666mm (26.2”); head joint 311mm (12.25”) with end pin; head joint ending diameter 16,4mm (0.65”); body 328mm (12.9”); foot 27mm (1.05”); foot ending diameter 15,1mm (0.6”); almost circular embouchure hole 8,2 x 8,0 mm (0.32” x 0.31”).
E. 4. Flute in F made for the famous flute player Nicholson who operated in London in during first decades of 19th century. Conical, 3 pieces of boxwood, with the head joint slightly bended, one brass key.
E. 5. French Eb soprano flute, branded: Noblet / Jeune / Fils, Paris 1830 ca. conical, 5 branded pieces, boxwood, ivory ring nuts, 5 brass keys.
E. 6. Eb soprano flute, anonymous, 1850 ca. conical, 5 pieces of flamed boxwood with 6 brass keys and horn ring nuts.
E. 7. Flute in D, conical, German, made probably during the second half of 18th century by Grenser Carl Augustin (Dresden, 1720-1807). The instrument is made of four pieces of flamed boxwood, ivory ring nuts, and 4 brass squared keys.
E. 8. English flute with conical bore, six holes and six keys, made by George Goulding between 1798 and 1803 in London. The instrument is made of five boxwood pieces with five ring nuts and ivory tuning pin. All the pieces but the barrel (not original?) are branded GOULDING & C°, the keys are made of silver and on one of them there is the signature of the silversmith G. Lew. The A is 436 Hz but the embouchure hole, conical, and the first hole has been reduced in their diameter with the addition of an ivory ring. The total length is 665mm (26.2”).
E. 9. German flute, with conical bore, with two spare bodies, branded C. G. HEROLDT, made of boxwood with 5 horn ring nuts and a brass keys. The instrument is made of a head joint measuring 224mm (8.8”), three upper bodies measuring respectively 147mm (5.8”), 156mm (6.15”), and 164 (6.45”), a 135mm (5.3”) lower body, and a 99mm (3.9”) foot. Conrad Gustav Herold was a flute maker who operated in Klingenthal during the first decades of 19th century. The flute is tuned at 440 Hz with the first body, at 434 Hz with the second and at 428 Hz with the third. Original case made of cardboard.
E. 10. English flute, conical, made in around 1815 by William Henry Potter. The instrument, in D, descending to C, is made of 5 ebony pieces with 5 ring nuts and the end pin made of ivory. The embouchure is almost circular and there are 6 silver keys. The brand impressed on the instrument is: POTTER / LONDON / PATENT.
E. 11. Flute in D, descending to D, English, second half of 18th century, anonymous, conical, made of boxwood, 4 pieces with ivory ring nuts, one squared brass key; it presents signs of the addition of three keys, probably added in 19th century and later removed.
E. 12. Side-blown Flute made of rosewood, maybe French, first half of 19th century, four pieces with conical bore, system between 1832 Böehm and Briccialdi. Ring nuts, 14 keys, and six rings made of silver. Monogram A C on the instrument and on the case.
E. 13. English flute made of rosewood with end pin, foot, four ring nuts, and keys made of brass. The instrument is branded DOUGLAS & C° / LONDON: this maker operated in London during the second decade of 20th century in 7 South St. EC. The flute, with conical bore, descends at D; it presents 6 open holes and 6 brass keys.
E. 14. Side-blown flute made of ebony, datable to the end of 19th century, with conical bore and inner metal sleeve; it is made of four pieces, descending to B with a double D#. The instrument presents six holes, fourteen keys (two for D# and Bb, the last missing) and five nickel silver ring nuts. This instrument is anonymous but the machinery recalls the instruments made by Maino & Orsi. The total length is 692mm (27.25”) even if the barrel seems reduced.
E. 15. Italian flute in D, conical, second half of 19th century, ebony. Five pieces with brand: circle with stylised face / oval without caption; 5 keys and ring nuts made of antimony.
E. 16. Side-blown flute, five ebony pieces, B-extension, ring nuts and 11 keys made of nickel silver, conical bore, regulation slide, screw end pin. Branded on every piece [reversed five-pointed star] / BUFFET / A PARIS / [reversed five-pointed star]. Most presumably made by Jean Louis Buffet, Paris, 1830-1844 (as also suggested by the label of the time, attached to the instrument).
E. 17. Side-blown flute, five ebony pieces, C-extension, ring nuts and ten keys made of silver, conical bore. Branded on every pieces: lyre / BUFFET / Crampon e Cie. / A PARIS, monogram BC. The instrument dates back to mid 19th century.
E. 18. Austrian flute made of three pieces, made by Johann Baptist Ziegler and datable between 1858 and 1878, branded: <double-headed eagle> / I. ZIEGLER / WIEN. / diapason. This flute, descending to B, shows an extra key for Eb to be activated with the left thumb. The instrument has conical bore, with thirteen keys hinged on metal supports and six holes. The head joint is made of silvered brass with ivory lip plate, while the body is made of rosewood.
E. 19. German flute, conical, anonymous, probably made during the second half of 19th century. The instrument, in C, descending to B, is made of four ebony pieces with 10 keys, end pin and 4 ring nuts made of nickel silver.
E. 20. Conical flute, anonymous, in C descending to D. The instrument is made of 4 ebony pieces with 6 keys and 5 ring nuts of silver. Made probably in Germany at the end of 19th century.
E. 21. German flute, type Schwedler, in C descending to B, made between the end of 19th century and the first decades of 20th century. The Schwedler flute takes its name from the flute player Maximilian Schwedler (1853-1940) who designed it in 1885. These instruments were made, at first, by Kruspe taking the name of Schwedler-Kruspe and later, with some modifications, they took the name of reform flutes. This instrument, in C descending to B, conical, is made of three ebony pieces and the head joint is made of nickel silver with the embouchure of ebonite. It presents 12 keys, two rings, and three ring nuts made of nickel silver.
E. 22. Flute in C#, conical, Meyer system, branded Corona, made in Markneukirchen in Bohemia by Schuster & Co. in around 1860, ivory head joint and 3 ebony pieces with 9 nickel keys.
E. 23. German flutes with ivory head joint, datable to the end of 19th century.
Flute, in C descending to B, it is made of three ebony pieces and an ivory head joint with metal core with a total length of 730mm (28.75”). The instrument presents 13 metal keys six holes with Meyer machinery.
Piccolo in C made of an ivory head joint and two ebony pieces with a total length of 318mm (12.5”). The instrument, descending to D, presents the machinery with 6 metal keys. The brand is BAUNGÄRTEL / MÜLHUASEN, this woodwinds maker operated in Mülhuasen in Vogtland until 1903.
Piccolo in C# made of an ivory head joint and two ebony pieces with a total length of 302mm (11.9”). The instrument, descending to D, presents the machinery with 6 metal keys. The brand is BAUNGÄRTEL / MÜLHUASEN.
E. 24. German flute, conical, made at the end of 19th century by Oscar Adler & Co. in Markneukirchen. The instrument is made of 4 ebony pieces with 8 keys, 4 ring nuts, and an end pin made of silvered metal. The brand is made of two ovals, in the first there is the writing ADLER & Co. / MARKNEUKIRCHEN, in the second the writing LOUIS de LEEUW / ZWOLLE.
E. 25. Flute in D, conical, Czechoslovakian, type Reform machinery, first decades of 20th century. The brand, in oval, has the writing: WYNEK KOHLERT / KRASLICE 1058 / REP. ČESKOSL. The flute, in C descending to B, is made of 4 ebony pieces with ring nuts, 13 keys, and 3 rings made of nickel-plated metal.
E. 26. Flute in C descending to B, conical, German. Instrument made of 4 ebony pieces with 4 ring nuts and 12 keys made of nickel silver. The impressed brand has the caption WÜNNENBERG / CÖLN.
E. 27. Flute, cylindrical, machinery with Böehm system, Germany, second half of 19th century, branded: [crown between two stars] / OTTO MONNING / LEIPZIG. / [lyre] / Orthoton / [eight-pointed star]. The flute, in C descending to B, is made of three ebony pieces and 16 keys with closed plugging made of silver. The embouchure is oval and narrow.
E. 28. Flute in E, conical bore. German instrument of the end of 19th century, branded D. ANSINGH & / ZWOLLE, made of 4 ebony pieces, 9 keys and 4 ring nuts of nickel silver.
E. 29. Conical flute, anonymous, probably made during the second half of 19th century in Italy, but with Meyer machinery. The instrument, in C, that can be turned B-tuned descending to Bb thanks to a bone spacer between the head joint and the barrel, is made of four ebony pieces with 13 keys and 4 ring nuts of nickel silver.
E. 30. Side-blown flute, Italian, first decade of 20th century. The brand presents: lyre (in oval) / BATTISTA / CAZZANI & Co / MILANO / monogram BC. The flute, in his original case, is made of four ebony pieces, there are 12 nickel keys and it is descending to B.
E. 31. Concert flute, in C descending to B, made by Egidio Rampone, son of Agostino, during the last years of 19th century, brand: <diapason> / RAMPONE / MILANO / BREVETTATO / monogram ER; four ebony pieces, ring nuts, borders of the holes and 15 keys made of nickel silver, tuning pin made of metal and enamel, original case with the brand A. Rampone.
E. 32. Concert flute, in C with cylindrical bore descending to B, model "rudal-carte", n° of order 342, Böehm system with closed plugging, 4 pieces of silvered metal (stamped 900). Milan, third decade of 20th century, branded on the head joint: in oval RAMPONE / DITTE RIUNITE / CAZZANI and on the barrel: five-pointed star, BREVETTATO / A. RAMPONE / 4735 MILANO.
E. 33. Italian flute made during the first quarter of 20th century, with the brand L. VANOTTI / MILANO / BREVETTATO. Böehm machinery with closed plugging; made of silvered nickel silver. Luigi Vanotti operated during the first quarter of 20th century together with Abelardo Albisi, creator of albisiphon bass flute.
E. 34. Concert flute, cylindrical, German, made of solid silver (stamped 900), Böehm system with closed plugging, three pieces. The brand impressed on the barrel has the writing SINFONIA / MAISTER / Paul Krebs / Erlbach / V. / (in oval) CONSERVATORU BUCURESTI / 13151. The instrument, in his original case, is datable to mid 20th century. Paul Krebs (1915-1989), apprentice of Gustav Reinhold Übel, and his worker, founded his own firm in 1961, "PGH Sinfonia", in 1972 it became "VEB Sinfonia", and since 1984 "VEB B&S".
E. 36. Cylindrical flute, anonymous, Fernand Chapelain à La-Couture-Boussey model, France, datable to the first decade of 20th century. The flute is made of nickel-plated brass, it is made of two pieces, it has a simplified Böehm machinery, and shows five keys and six holes, it is descending to D.
E. 37. Glass flute covered with leather, accurate copy (for its dimensions and the distance between the holes) of a wooden flute preserved in Accademia Filarmonica in Verona and attributed to Rafi. The instrument might be considered in C with a low diapason at 415 Hz. The instrument is made of a cylindrical glass tube with six holes covered with black leather, with embouchure (circular) and ring nuts, at the extremities, made of rosewood.
E. 38. Stick-piccolo in A, English, first decades of 20th century. Knob made of solid ivory, head joint and body of rosewood with five nickel silver keys, body of the staff screwed to the foot of the instrument. Brand: Boosey & Hawkes Ltd. / LONDON, brass end.
E. 39. Piccolo in D, with conical bore, anonymous. 3 ebony pieces, four ring nuts and five keys of metal.
E. 40. Piccolo in C, Germany, second half of 19th century, 3 ebony pieces, 6 keys and ring nuts made of nickel.
E. 41. Piccolo in C, branded C. MAHILLON / BRUXELLES. The instrument maker Victor Charles Mahillon, famous for the reconstruction of the oboe d’amore, operated around 1870. Two ebony pieces and five silver nickel keys.
E. 42. Piccolo in C, with cylindrical bore, Böehm system with closed plugging. Milan, first half of 20th century. On the head joint is reported the brand: RAMOPNE / Ditte Riunite / CAZZANI, while on the body the brand is A. RAMPONE / MILANO. Two silvered metal pieces with lip plate and hand rester with floral decoration made of burin. The n° of order in 1926 catalogue is 512.
E. 43. English Flute made of ebony, anonymous, made during the second half of 19th century. The instrument presents a cylindrical bore, in three pieces with fourteen metal keys and two plates. The machinery is an evolution of the old mechanized system (Pratten's Perfected) with the addition of keys and plates for the six open holes of the Ziegler machinery, and Böehm machinery on the foot. The dimensions are: head joint 238mm (9.35”), oval embouchure hole 15 x 11 mm (0.6” x 0.45”), body 292mm (11.5”), foot 137mm (5.4”), inner diameter 18mm (0.7”), outer diameter 26mm (1”).
E. 44. Italian flute, made during the last decades of 19th century, conical bore with inner metal sleeve, four ebony pieces. There are six holes, five metal ring nuts and fifteen keys (two for D# and Bb) made of nickel silver. The instrument is branded on every piece: royal coat of arms / (in oval) MAINO E ORSI / MILANO / monogram MO / five-pointed star. The instrument has a double D#, identified with the number 52 in 1898 catalogue; it is descending to Bb and is 715mm (28.15”) long.
E. 45. Italian piccolo, in three ebony pieces, conical bore with inner metal sleeve, made during the last decades of 19th century. This instrument is anonymous but the machinery recalls the instruments made by Maino & Orsi. The total length is 322mm (12.65”) even if the barrel seems extended and the end pin is missing; there are six holes, three ring nuts and seven keys made of nickel silver (the Bb key is missing).
E. 46. English stick-flute, anonymous, made during the second half of 19th century. The instrument is made of an ebony flute in three pieces, head joint 196mm (7.7”), upper body 140mm (5.5”), lower body 159mm (6.25”), conical bore, with five nickel silver keys descending to D, and with a knob (40mm - 1.55”) and a tip (435mm - 17.1”) giving the total length of 970mm (38.2”).
E. 47. Flute in C descending to B, branded in every piece: lyre / BORGANI / ORFEO / MACERATA / brevettato / monogram OB, dating back to 1920s. The instrument, 718mm (28.25”) long, is made of four pieces of ebony with conical bore, six holes, twelve nickel silver keys, and four ring nuts.
E. 48. Flute in D# descending to C, branded: lyre / (in oval) BUFFET / A PARIS / (in oval) A. / BARI / five-pointed star, made during the first quarter of 20th century and commercialized in Bari by Alfredo Gardelli who sold instruments (Buffet, Conn, Rampone) with his own brand. The instrument, made of ebony, in three pieces, has conical bore, six holes, eight keys and three metal ring nuts and it is 573mm (22.55”) long.
E. 49. Piccolo in C branded G. PELITTI, Italian, made during the first quarter of 20th century, of ebony with conical bore and metal sleeve in the head joint and in the barrel. The instrument is made of three pieces with a total length 307mm (12.1”) with six keys, six holes and three metal ring nuts.
E. 50. Flute in F descending to D, branded: TITO BELATI / PERUGIA, dating back to the third decade of 20th century. The instrument, with conical bore, is made of three ebony pieces with six holes and six keys (only two are present) and four metal ring nuts (one missing) and it is 476mm (18.75”) long.
E. 51. Piccolo in C, branded: five-pointed star / P. Pupeschi / Firenze / five-pointed star, probably made in 1901. The instrument is made of ebony with conical bore and metal sleeve in the head joint and in the barrel. The instrument is made of three pieces of the total length of 321mm (12.65”) with six keys, six holes and four metal ring nuts.
E. 52. Flute in C, Italian, branded: SISTEMA BRICCIALDI / BREVETTATO / I. GERINI / FABBRICANTE / FIRENZE. Ippolito Gerini made flutes with Briccialdi system until the third decade of 20th century. This system was a synthesis of Böehm system and Ziegler system, created by the famous flute player from Terni Briccialdi, in 1849, consisting in a metal flute with cylindrical bore and a system with fifteen keys and one ring. This instrument, datable to the second decade of 20th century is 657mm (25.85”) long.
E. 53. Flute with conical bore, descending to D, branded: five-pointed star / BUFFET / A PARIS / five-pointed star. This brand can be attributed to Jean Luis Buffet who used it during the second quarter of 19th century. The instrument, with six holes, with the length of 621mm (24.45”), is made of four pieces of fine rosewood, with the rods and five keys made of nickel silver, with diapason at 436 Hz.
E. 54. English flute descending to B, datable to the second decade of 19th century, with conical bore, made of five boxwood pieces with five ring nuts and ivory end pin, eight keys with pewter pins and with movable silver plate hinged on mountings made of embossed wood. On every piece there is the brand GOULDING & Cº, while on the barrel there is the brand: 6 / Prince of Wales badge / GOULDING / D’ALMAINE / POTTER & Cº / SOHO-SQUARE / LONDON. The embouchure hole is almost circular 11 x 10 mm (0.43” x 0.39”), the diapason is at 436 Hz, the total length is 660mm (26”).
E. 55. Flute made of boxwood with conical bore, descending to B. The instrument was made by Johann Baptist Junior Ziegler (Vienna 1824 – 1879) during the sixth decade of 19th century and, on every piece, has the brand: double-headed eagle / I. ZIEGLER / WIEN. The instrument has its original case, it is made of four pieces with six holes, ring nuts, eleven keys (the last with movable plate) and two levers made of nickel silver. The diapason is 440 Hz; it has an oval embouchure hole and is 712mm (28.05”) long.
E. 56. Flute made of ebony with conical bore, descending to B. The instrument was made by Johann Baptist Junior Ziegler (Vienna 1824 – 1879) during the third quarter of 19th century and on every piece has the brand: double-headed eagle / I. ZIEGLER / WIEN. The instrument has its original case, it is made of four pieces with six holes, ring nuts, eleven keys (the last ones with movable plates) and a lever made of nickel silver. The diapason is 440 Hz; the flute has the end tip and the foot decorated with fine enamels, it has an oval embouchure hole and is 711mm (28”) long.
E. 57. Flute descending to B, in four ebony pieces with pale fiddleback, oval ivory lip plate, conical bore, six holes, ten keys and five ring nuts made of nickel silver, branded: A. MINISINI / TORINO / 2 brevetti. The instrument, with similar design of Buffet flutes, is 712mm (28.05”) long. The diapason is 440 Hz.
E. 58. Flute in four ebony pieces, conical bore, descending to C with eight keys and six holes, branded: ABBATE / ALFONSO / B. The maker operated in Naples between 1840 and 1881 and he was the inventor of many instruments. This instrument, datable to the third quarter of 19th century, is 689mm (27.1”) long. The diapason is 440 Hz.
E. 59. Flute in E descending to D, anonymous, datable to the end of 19th century, in four ebony pieces, with conical bore, six keys and five metal ring nuts and six holes. The instrument is 518mm (204”) long.
E. 60. Cylindrical flute, made of silvered brass, Böehm machinery with closed plugging, bent E, not aligned G, in three pieces, branded by burin on the barrel: CARLO ROSSINI / wrung leaf. There is not information about this maker, so it is probably an Orsi flute branded with Rossini’s name.
E. 61. Piccolo in C branded: C / 870, probably made during the first decades of 20th century. The instrument is made of ebony with pale fiddleback, with conical bore and metal sleeve in the head joint and in the barrel. The instrument is made of two pieces with the total length of 308mm (12.1”), six keys, six holes and three metal ring nuts.
E. 62. Piccolo in C with ‘double chamber’, entirely of silvered metal and made of two tubes having the outside reproducing a wooden flute and the inside having conical bore. The instruments with double chamber were patented by Agostino Rampone (1843 - 1897) in 1879 to go along with the necessity of Italian flute players who used to play wooden flutes and were reluctant to play little metal flutes: in 1884 the Giornale Militare Ufficiale published new rules for military bands to adopt flutes and clarinets with double sides produced by Rampone. It is a solid instrument, but heavy and difficult to be repaired, it has the Ziegler machinery with six holes and seven keys, it is made of two pieces, 298mm (11.75”) long, it is branded in oval: A. RAMPONE / coat of arms of Savoy / MILANO / SISTEMA CON PRIVILEGIO / 519. The instrument is datable to around 1885.
E. 63. Piccolo in C branded: lyre / F. ROTH / MILAN / flower with six petals. It is datable to the third quarter of 19th century; it is made of ebony with conical bore and metal sleeve in the head joint and in the barrel. The instrument is in three pieces with the total length of 304mm (11.95”) with four ring nuts and six silvered keys, six holes and a later ring nut.
E. 64. Flute made of ebony with conical bore, descending to B. The instrument has the brand: lyre / VINATIERI / A TORINO / sun. The instrument has its original case with the monogram N G, it is made of ebony, in four pieces with six holes, ring nuts, and ten keys (but the long F lever is missing and the hole is plugged) made of silver. During the second Triennale Pubblica Esposizione in Turin, in 1832, Fortunato Vinatieri, operating in Piazza Vittorio Emanuele next to 20, received an honourable mention for the exhibition of an oboe and a flute (totally identical to this one) made of ebony, with silver guerniture. The diapason is 438 Hz; it has an oval embouchure hole and is 706mm (27.8”) long.
E. 65. Flute with conical bore, Ziegler system, made of ebony between 1902 and 1918, during those years this brand was used: lyre / MAINO & ORSI / MILANO / monogram MO. This is a flute in C descending to B with eleven keys, two levers, an additional key for the left ring finger, to close better the third hole of the upper body (G), and five holes. The instrument is in four pieces with the foot joined to lower body, its length is 724mm (28.5”) and the keys are made of nickel silver.
E. 66. Flute with conical bore, made of boxwood, descending to B. The instrument was made by Johann Joseph Ziegler (operating in Vienna from 1821 to 1850) and on every piece has the brand: double-headed eagle / I: ZIEGLER / WIEN. The instrument has its original case, it is in four pieces, and it has six holes, metal ring nuts (one missing), ten keys (the last three with movable plates) and a lever made of nickel silver. The diapason is 438 Hz; it has an oval embouchure hole and is 704mm (27.7”) long.
E. 67. Flute in C, descending to B, with conical bore, made of granadilla between 1902 and 1918, during those years this brand was used: lyre / (in oval) BATTISTA / CAZZANI & Co / MILANO / monogram BC. Giovan Battista Cazzani (1846 -1920) made musical instruments in Milan starting from 1890, in 1912 affiliated with Rampone brothers (Egidio married his daughter in 1926) giving birth to Cazzani & Co until 1920. This is a flute with twelve keys and six holes. The instrument is made of four pieces with the foot joined to lower body, it has the length of 718mm (28.25”), the keys and the ring nuts, the last missing, are made of nickel silver.
E. 68. Zuffolo made of nickel silver branded on the barrel: ZUFFOLO / A SCALA CROMATICA / BREVETTO / ABELARDO ALBISI / CORSO CONCORDIA 4 / MILANO. On the oval plate on the pipes there is the carving: ABELARDO ALBISI / BREVETTO / MILANO / CORSO CONCORDIA 4. The instrument shows 13 pipes with closed end tuned from A5 to B6 and the opening is activated by some keys on the right of the instrument imitating the arrangement of piano keys. On the barrel a little headjoint is inserted, with the side hole connected, through a plastic tube, to a metal mouthpiece. The "zuffolo" was proposed to Dayton Miller by Glauco Meriggioli on behalf of Albisi himself together with other instruments, in 1937. It is said it was wanted by the composer Antonio Smareglia for the opera “Abisso”. It seems it was never patented, even if several makers, among them Vanotti who made instruments for Albisi, wrote this caption to give more importance to the instruments. Another specimen, but in the two-octave version, made by Vanotti, is at Orsi Factory collection, in Tradate.
E. 69. Grenadilla ebony conical flute, descendant of G2 (panaulon). These flutes were built from 1815 onwards by Trexler and Koch at 16 keys and then by Ziegler until 1835. In 1823 Bayr publishes in Vienna a method, Practische Flöten-Schule, in which there is the fingering method for a flute descending to G2 of Koch at right foot (some of these flutes had their foot bent back). The instrument was built by Johann Joseph Ziegler (active in Vienna from 1821 to 1850) around 1830 and bearing the mark: I: ZIEGLER / WIEN. The instrument has its original case on which it is engraved: D. C. (probably the monogram of the owner). It is in four pieces, it has six holes, four ring guards (the last missing) and seventeen silver keys (the last seven with floating cloak). The diapason is 438 Hz, has the oval hole and is long mm. 889 while the sole foot is long mm. 467.
E. 70. Giorgi flute, straight flute with transverse mouthpiece, datable to 1894, hallmarked: JOSEPH WALLIS & SON LTD / GIORGI PATENT / LONDON. It is in ebonite with two rings in nickel-silver for a total length of mm. 528. The instrument is in two parts: the head, which holds only the lip plate, which is engraved with: Wallis PATENT and C. T. Giorgi and the body, consisting of a cylindrical vertical tube, on which there are eleven holes, two of which are posterior. It was patented by Carlo Tommaso Giorgi (1856-1953), Florentine inventor, musician and acoustic physicist, in 1888 and produced first by Maino and Orsi and later by Joseph Wallis & Son Ltd. in London. It was designed as a chromatic instrument, with the eleven holes positioned to produce the twelve semitones of the octave. To close this number of holes it is necessary to use the thumbs, all the tips of the fingers and the left index side which makes the fingering very complex. The instrument is held vertically rather than horizontally and, to simplify its execution, were subsequently added by one to four keys.
E. 71. Double head flute, vertical and horizontal, and double barrel for intonation in C and D-flat. The vertical head, with the U-shaped curve of 180 degrees followed by the right-angle curve (patent 49789), ends in a tenon that fits into a cylindrical metal barrel and then onto the upper body of the flute. Patented and built in Cologne in 1889 by Everhard Anton Wünnenberg based on a design by Peter Joseph Tonger, it is marked on the curve of the head: WÜNNENBERG'S D.R.P. No. 49789 / P. J. TONGER / KÖLN A / RHEIN. Wünnenberg was born in Cologne in 1844, succeeded his father in managing the factory and obtained various patents for flute titles and mechanics. He died in Cologne on March 8, 1938. Peter Joseph Tonger was born in Cologne in 1845, he was a builder, musician and editor. From 1890 he built his own vertical flutes with Wünnenberg mechanics. He died in Cologne on March 25, 1917. The instrument, descending from the B, presents fifteen metal keys and a ring. The body, in ebony, is in two pieces, the horizontal head is in bone with its ebony barrels while the vertical one is metal with a bone sleeve for the insufflation hole and the two metal barrels. Total length mm. 712 with barrel in D-flat while mm. 730 with C barrel, conical bore and closed-hole mechanics patented by Wünnenberg himself.
F. 9. Side-blown flute in G (Schwegel), Austria, mid 20th century, made in Carinthia by Hausa Schmidl (1905-1999), the brand is carved on the head joint: HAUSA SCHMIDL / KÄRNTEN / G. Two pieces of blackthorn wood with brass ring, conical bore with 7 holes, the fifth a double hole and the seventh for the little finger (G#). Length 460mm (18.1”) and circular embouchure.
F. 10. Piffaro from Germany or Netherlands, 18th century, made of boxwood. The instrument is branded “S” with a crown on the top, it has six holes and it was probably one of those flutes played accompanied with a drum.
F. 11. Piffaro from Alps, anonymous, the second half of 18th century. The flute, made of boxwood, finely turned both on the head joint and on the foot, is 326mm (12.85”) long and shows 6 front holes and a circular embouchure.
F. 12. English piffaro, anonymous, first half of 19th century. The instrument, in two pieces, is made of rosewood with two brass ring nuts on the head and on the foot; it is 353mm (13.9”) long and shows a circular embouchure and six front holes.
F. 13. Piffero made of ebony in A, used in military bands, England, 2 pieces, branded: Improved / London / B, 6 holes and a nickel silver key.
F. 14. Flauto traversino with 6 front holes and a brass key, having a recorder-like embouchure. Alps, beginning of 19th century, 2 pieces of brown ebony.
F. 15. Fipple flute, early 19th century, made of rosewood with six front holes, popular during the last century in Flanders, Netherlands, and Northern France. Fingering like Irish whistle.
F. 16. Recorder, France 1890, granadilla and ebony, 7 single holes + 1 back hole, thin shape, length 325mm (12.8”). Brand: Couesnon / & CIE / a Paris.
F. 17. Sopilka, recorder made in Ukraine during the first decades of 20th century, by an anonymous maker, in three pieces of dark ebonite with 8 front holes and two back holes. Conical bore and thin shape, 3 brass ring nuts, length 327mm (12.85”). This instrument is the most common Ukrainian folk flute and has a number of holes from six to ten.
F. 18. Recorder with keys, made by Lucien (Garenne-sur-eure, 1930), last descendant of Lot family, famous dynasty of instrument makers. Brand: LN LOT / France / Brevetè S.G.D.G. Two pieces of dark wood with bone beak, 6 keys of silver and 6 + 1 holes. Thin shape, 332mm (13.05”).
F. 19. Alto recorder, German, anonymous. The peculiar head joint, with slander swellings, and the cylindrical foot allowed to the greatest German flute expert of 19th century, Peter Tailheimer, to attribute it to Franz Otto (Markneukirchen 1860 – 1905). The instrument is 474mm (194 + 187 + 93 mm) (18.65” = 7.65” + 7.35” + 3.65”) long. It has inverted conical bore, is in F (A 453 Hz) and it is made of rosewood with embouchure and foot covered with ebony, 1 back hole and 7 front holes, the last two are double holes.
F. 20. Tenor recorder, German, in C, made by Thomas von Mollenhauer for the fine series “Solist”, during the first half of 20th century. The instrument, of rosewood, is made of three pieces and it is long 660mm (26”). It presents a German fingering with seven front holes, the penultimate a double hole, one back hole and it has a brass key for C.
F. 21. Bassett recorder, German, made by Thomas von Mollenhauer for the fine series “Solist”, during the first half of 20th century. The instrument, of rosewood, is made of three pieces and it is 981mm (38.6”) long. It presents the German fingering with eight front holes (two for F-F# and the penultimate a double hole) and a back hole. The ring nut on the foot, two keys (the F-key has two holes, one is open), and the bocal are made of brass while the embouchure is made of wood.
F. 22. Recorders, three with side embouchure and one with beak. North-American make, end of 19th century. These instruments, made of stained wood and brass ring nuts, shows six front holes without tone hole. The end-blown flute is 316mm (12.45”) long with fipple-foot length of 286mm (11.25”) and is in Bb. The side-blown flutes present a fine upper turning and a little wooden cylinder that allows the air blow. Two of them are made of two pieces, and are 385mm (15.15”) and 384mm (15.1”) long, the fipple-foot lengths are 276mm (10.85”) and 273mm (10.75”) and they are respectively in B and in C. The last is made of a single piece with the length of 337mm (13.25”) with fipple-foot length 242mm (9.5”) and it is in D.
F. 37. Side-blown flute in C (Schwegel), mid 20th century, branded: 440 on the embouchure hole, than under: HAUSA SCHMIDL / KÄRNTEN / GREIFENBURG ÖSTERR. / d. Single piece of blackthorn wood (?), conical bore with 6 holes, the fifth and the sixth are double. Length 315mm (12.4”), circular embouchure and spherical turning on the head and on the foot. Hausa Schmidl, (1905-1999), was the most famous Austrian folk flute maker.
F. 38. Fife, English, in B, branded: fleur-de-lis / D'ALMAINE & Co / LATE / GOULDING & D'ALMAINE / 104 / NEW BOND STREET / LONDON / G. The instrument has been made between 1858 and 1866; it is made of wood and is 369mm (14.5”) long. It shows two brass ring nuts at the ends, a barely oval embouchure hole, and six front holes without tone hole. It was probably used for military music.
F. 44. English piffero in Ab, for military band, datable to the beginning of 20th century. The instrument is branded: MADE FOR / BOOSEY & HAWKES / LONDON and it is made of two pieces of ebony with total length of 395mm (15.55”). It shows six front holes, one key, and three brass ring nuts.
F. 45. Small anonymous flute, stained wood, six front holes and with a small slit at the side of the lip of the box. The profile wave (Wellenprofil) specifically recalls the tools of the school of Nuremberg late 600 / early 700. The instrument is high mm. 118.
F. 46. Wood Cornett covered in red morocco leather with signs of repairs to the leather cover. The tool presents the mouthpiece (internal) and the final, zoomorphic head, in dark horn and an opening on the convex side. The section is rectangular with rounded corners. There are two metal brackets for the suspension strap (missing) and is long mm. 380. Italian and probably dating from the second half of the '700 and early 800.
F. 47. Crumhorn soprano in C, stained wood (maple?) with seven holes plus two front holes resonance on the bell and a brass ring. It is visible a repair shield-shaped in front of the body under the ring and on the first hole (probably been lost or removed a coat of arms). The Crumhorn is a renaissance instrument, whit cylindrical bore, double-reed encapsulated, whose name comes from the German Krummhörn (curved horn) for the umbrella-handle characteristic shape. These tools were very popular in France, Germany and the Netherlands, they had a very limited extension, just over one octave, so were played in consort from soprano to bass to broaden the extension. This is an ancient reconstruction dating from the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, attributable to instrument makers of the French area (Auguste Tolbecque, Victor-Charles Mahillon) and is long mm. 370.
F. 48. Soprano Recorder, anonymous, in two parts, in pear stained wood, built in the manner of Thomas Stanesby Jr. (1692-1754), with signs of wear and a crown-shaped mark on the front of the block . The instrument was restored by master builder and restorer Friedrich von Huene, in Boston, between 1970 and 1971, as reported in the attached manuscript paper, so it is difficult to date it accurately. It could be an instrument dating from the eighteenth century or copy later built. The instrument has a back hole and, in front, seven holes of which the last two doubles and is long mm. 317.
G. 2. Chromatic harp without pedals, with on every side of the neck (entirely made of golden metal) the caption Pleyel, Lyon & C.ie Paris / 789 / Harpe. syste G.ve Lyon (brevetè). The Pleyel chromatic harp was born for the necessity to have all the tonal possibilities of a double action pedal harp in an instrument without pedals. Gustave Lyon, director of Pleyel manufacturer, made this harp, recalled by an 1843 old project by Jean-Hanry Pape, with order of Alphonse Hasselmans, to solve the problems during virtuous passages while using pedal harps. So he produced a harp known as chromatic, that thanks to the idea of using a double row of strings it reaches the wanted purpose. In this harp, the strings, diatonically tuned, are attached on the right side (the back) of the neck (the harmonic curve that connect the soundbox with the column), while on the left side (the front) the chromatic strings are attached; crossing each others, for convenience, close to the halfway, the two rows of strings ends at the opposite sides of the soundboard. This instrument presents 78 strings (from D0 to G6) in two courses: 46 diatonic strings in C major attached on the right of the neck and on the left side of the soundboard, and 32 chromatic strings from the left side of the neck to the right side of the soundboard. The harp, made during the last decade of 19th century, has to bear a huge tension (1200 Kg.), for this reason it presents a metal column veneered with ash root wood. The soundbox, also veneered with ash wood, is very wide, made of maple, with numerous supports made of solid wood and metal, and on the back it shows 6 openings, 4 vertically and the last two horizontally separated by a metal decoration. On the soundbox there are the two strips (and the inner counter-strips) made of beechwood with ivory pins. On the head there are metal decorations in the shape of feminine figures. The foot shows four feet made of golden metal, the front feet are in the shape of lion’s paws (containing wooden wheels) and the back feet in the shape of coils. Notwithstanding in Conservatories of Paris and Brussels some chromatic harp schools were established, the Pleyel chromatic harp was never very popular. This harp presented other drawbacks (difficulty for glissandos) in respect to pedal harp, so during the first decade of 20th century there was a heated debate between supporters of Pleyel chromatic harp and supporters of Erard diatonic harp so much that Debussy (Danses sacre et profane 1904) and Ravel (Introduction et allegro 1905) wrote pieces dedicated to the two different instruments.
G. 15. French harp; on the neck there is the engraving: DOMÉNY / Facteur de Harpes et de Pianos. Rue du Faub.ᵍ S.ᵗ Martin127 N° 257 / 1.ERE MEDAILLE d’Argent aux Exposition de l’Industrie de 1827.1834.1839.1844 / MEDAILLE D’OR 1849. MEDAILLE 1.ERE CLASSE EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE / da 1855. The instrument is datable to 1857 and made by Louis Joseph Domeny (operating from 1814 to 1861) who refined the system with forks reducing the length of the string; it has 44 with fork machinery and 8 double-action pedals. As regards the structure, the sound box has a semicircular section and shows some support chains inside; the neck is made of stratified wood and it is more reinforced thanks to brass plates that contain the double-action machinery. The semicircular soundbox shows on the back 5 holes enclosed in a trapezoidal frame. As for the decoration, this instrument belongs to the neo-archaeological type; the capital has caryatids holding the crown, the base of the column presents a decoration with palm leaves and, on the base, two angels, and the pedestal is supported by four lion’s paws, everything made of golden wood.
H. 11. French desk piano for ladies, datable to the third decade of 19th century in Charles X style, made of rosewood lacquered yellow with Indian ink floral drawings. The instrument, closed, measures 340 x 540 x 760 mm (13.4” x 21.25” x 29.9”), inside there is a mercury mirror and a lot of compartments for sewing and writing tools. The little extractable keyboard has 22 ivory keys and 15 ebony keys (from F3 to F6), there are metal strings: single strings for the 18 lower notes, while double strings for the other 19.
H. 15. English piano-cabinet, entirely veneered with maple with golden plaster decorations, it is signed: PATENT REPEATER / COLLARD & COLLARD / LATE / CLEMENTI, COLLARD & COLLARD / LONDON. This type of piano, in fact resembling a cabinet, was made for the first time in England during the first half of 19th century. The pins and the wrest plank are on the top, while the strings start near the floor. This arrangement was invented in the same time by the English John Isaac Hawkins (1772-1855) and by the Viennese Matthias Müller (1770 ca.-1844) and has a bayonet English sticker action machinery. The illustrious Collard & Collard Piano Company was initially founded as "Longman & Broderip" in 1767 that, in addiction to make pianos, it was a publishing house that published Muzio Clementi’s compositions. He took over the manufacturer giving the brand Clementi & Company; in 1815, he retired and the manufacturer was managed by Collard brothers. At Clementi’s death, in 1832, the manufacturer took the name Collard & Collard late Clementi. The keyboard, made of ivory and ebony, has six octaves and five notes (C1 – G7). The instrument is entirely made of sycamore maple with decorations made of plaster gilt with bronzing powder, it presents two octagonal legs tapered downwards, has two wooden pedals and, upon the keyboard, the accommodation for the strings decorated with two columns with capitals and a cymatium. Inside there is the serial number 936 that makes it to date back to 1820 and a title block with this caption: DIRECTION / 1. - The action is taken out in the usually manner, after first removing the dampers; but care must be taken to lay the action-frame down on its side, to prevent any injury to damper-stickers. / 2. - Three screws will be observed in each upright rail of the action-frame by removing till the check-rail and damper-stickers, may at once he taken away and any hammer set to the stungs with the greatest eake. / 3. - To regulate the jacks, take a piece of strong wire (band to a right angle at one end) and pass it between the damper-sticker into the eye of the .... / 4. - the ...ller of this invention will be readily discovered by the one of an intelligent mechanic, as well as by the finger of an a complished performer.
H. 19. Organ pipes coming from an Italian instrument probably made in 18th century. They are a group of twenty-nine little pipes made of lead and tin that emit the following notes: A, A#(broken), C, C, C#, C#, C#, D, D#, D#, F, F, F#, G, C#, A#, A#, F, C#, D, D#, E, F#, G, G#, G#, A#, C, C#. The dimensions are from 220mm (8.65”) to 320mm (12.6”).
J. 3. French oboe made of boxwood in three pieces, made by Thibouville-Cabart in 1870 ca. The brand on every piece is: galleon / Thibouville / Cabart / à Paris / b # ≠. The instrument has three ring nuts and ten keys made of brass, but the C key and the rod for B are missing; the bell is cracked in some points.
J. 6. Cor anglais in F, straight, made in around 1920. Three pieces made of Indian walnut, branded <coat of arms of Savoy > / PROF. ROMEO ORSI MILAN (in oval) / TRADE <two bears> MARK / ESPORT. MONDIAL, and on the back of the upper piece the number 50680. The instrument, in F2 starting from E2, presents a Böehm machinery with 19 keys and a ring made of silver alloy. The total length is 873mm (34.35”), staple 73mm (2.85”), upper body 331mm (13.05”), lower body 319mm (12.55”), bell 150mm (5.9”).
J. 7. Cor anglais in F, straight shape, German, made in 1960s, Uebel system with a single tone hole and flared bell like the bells of clarinets. The instrument, in grenadilla, is branded in oval: original / G.Rudolf / Uebel, under the oval there is the caption: Wohlhausen / (Vogtland). The instrument is made of three pieces (upper body, lower body, and bell) with total length of 865mm (34.05”) without staple, and it presents 24 keys.
J. 8. English bassoon, second half of 19th century, ebony, German (Heckel) machinery, branded “Boosey & co. / makers / 295 Regent Street / London / 1588”, 16 nickel keys and 7 holes.
J. 16. E-flat piccolo clarinet, French, five boxwood pieces, six ivory ring nuts, nine keys and thumbrest made of brass. Mouthpiece made of ebony. All the pieces are branded: lyre surrounded by rays / B T, while on the bell there is the brand: lyre surrounded by rays / B T / BUTHOD & THIBOUVILLE / BREVETES S.G.D.G. / A PARIS. These makers operated in Paris from 1857 to 1867.
J. 17. E-flat piccolo clarinet branded G. KRYWALSKI / TESCHEN, in four boxwood pieces and mouthpiece made of ebony. The instrument was made during the second half of 19th century by Georg Krywalski who operated in Teschen till 1897. The instrument has A at 440 Hz; it has seven holes while the four ring nuts, the eight keys, and the reed ligature are made of brass. The thumbrest and the C-hole are obtained from the embossed wood body.
J. 18. C-sharp piccolo clarinet, anonymous, second half of 19th century, made in Germany or Bohemia, four yellow boxwood pieces and mouthpiece made of ebony. Seven keys and four ring nuts made of brass with the hole for the right little finger in relief. Total length 488mm (19.21”) without the mouthpiece.
J. 19. Clarinet in A, France, made between 1848 and 1852, “Martin Fes à Paris” make. Five pieces made of boxwood and mouthpiece made of ebony, ivory ring nuts, reed ligature with wire, 8 brass keys.
J. 20. Clarinet in A made by Johann Joseph Ziegler (Vienna 1821 – 1850), on every piece there is the brand: double-headed eagle / I:ZIEGLER / WIEN. / A. Ebony mouthpiece and 4 pieces made of boxwood with thumbrest in relief, 5 ivory ring nuts, 13 keys made of brass hinged on metal mountings. Mouthpiece with table covered with silver alloy and metal lining inside the barrel. Dimensions: mouthpiece 71mm (2.8”), barrel 74mm (2.9”), upper piece 200mm (7.85”), lower piece 237mm (9.35), bell 100mm (3.95”).
J. 21. Clarinet in C, English. The instrument is made of five boxwood pieces and the mouthpiece, with six ring nuts of ivory (two restored) and five squared keys made of brass. The brand, on every piece, has the caption ASTOR & Co. / LONDON / [unicorn]. This manufacturer operated in 79 Cornhill Street and 27 Tottenham Street, Fitzroy Square from 1798 to 1800, and it was made by the brothers George and John Astor.
J. 22. Clarinet in C, French, made of boxwood with five ivory ring nuts and 13 keys made of brass. The instrument is made of four pieces, all branded NOBLET / JEUNE / FILS, brand used by Noblet family during the first decades of 19th century. The mouthpiece, made of rosewood in around 1845, is branded J. LEUKHARDT / BOSTON (this instrument maker, born in Russia in 1819 and moved to Boston, after the 1847 associated with Schauffler creating the famous manufacturer Schauffler & Leukhardt).
J. 23. Bassett horn, alto clarinet in F, mouthpiece made of ebony and 4 pieces made of boxwood with thumbrest in relief, ivory ring nuts, 13 brass keys hinged on wooden mountings in relief. The barrel is bent. The instrument was made by Johann Joseph Ziegler (operating in Vienna from 1821 to 1850) and on every piece there is the brand: double-headed eagle / I:ZIEGLER / WIEN / F.
J. 39. Clarinet in Bb, English, datable between 1798 and 1803, made of five boxwood pieces and the ebony mouthpiece, six ivory ring nuts and six brass keys. The instrument is branded on every piece: GOULDING & Cº, while on the bell there is also the symbol of Prince of Wales and the writing LONDON. The total length is 529mm (20.8”) without the mouthpiece.
J. 40. Tenor cornett made by the Berliner Günter Körber (1922-1990), whose instruments are kept in museums and collections. The instrument, with lightly conical shape, made of rosewood, is 532mm (20.95”) long without the mouthpiece; it presents seven front holes and two metal ring nuts, the lower one with fish and birds incisions. The mouthpiece is made of ivory.
J. 53. English bassoon, in four rosewood pieces, six keys and three ring nuts made of brass, and original bocal. There is the brand: unicorn / C. GEROCK / 79 / CORNHILL / LONDON. Christopher Gerock, operating in London from 1804 to 1837, had his offices in Cornhill between 1808 and 1823; he was a fine maker of flutes, clarinets, but mainly bassoons. The instrument has length of 1240mm (48.8”); the diameter of the bell is 50mm (1.95”), total length of the wing 530mm (20.85”).
J. 56. Clarinet in Bb, Italian, on every piece it has the brand: flower / VINATIERI / A TORINO / sun / SI b, datable to the third decade of 19th century. Vinatieri Fortunato [1807-1859], Guglielmo’s son, operated from 1829 to 1859, but from 1838 associated with Vincenzo Castellazzo with the brand Vinatieri and Castlas, while from 1858 appeared together with his son Camillo as Vinatieri & figlio. This instrument is made of five boxwood pieces with five horn ring nuts (one missing) and the mouthpiece made of ebony. The upper body has three holes and four rounded and flat keys made of brass, two of them hinged on brass joints and two directly on relief mouldings of the wood. The central body has three holes and a key on a brass joint while the lower body has a hole and three keys directly hinged on the wood. It has cylindrical bore and, without mouthpiece, is 573mm (22.55”) long.
J. 57. Straight cor anglais in F, branded: lyre / (in oval) BUFFET / Crampon & C. / A PARIS / monogram BC / BREVETE / S.G.D.G. serial number 472 that dates it back to 1886. Jean Louis Buffet was already an instrument maker since 1840: in 1871, together with Leon Crampon, founded the Buffet & Crampon. The instrument, in its original case, 793mm (31.2”) long, is in three pieces made of Honduras rosewood: staples, 13 keys, and three rings are made of silver nickel.
J. 78. Contrabassoon of “Premiata Fabbrica Italiana Istrumenti Musicali Edoardo Sioli Milano” lyre / E. SIOLI / MILANO / five-pointed star. The instrument is datable to the third decade of 20th century and it was played in RAI Orchestra in Milan by Prof. Freschi Mario. The instrument is made of red maple, it is descending to C so it has the wooden bell upwards, moreover it presents twenty metal keys, three curves, and a long bocal.
J. 80. Italian bassoon branded: E. SIOLI / MILANO / five-petaled flower, datable to second decade of 20th century. The instrument is made of varnished maple; it shows French machinery with five holes and twenty one metal keys some of which are blocked by cork pieces. The dimensions are: 433mm (17.05”) for the boot, 529mm (20.8”) for the longest piece, 469mm (18.45”) for the wing, and 362mm (14.25”) for the bell. Edoardo Sioli was the most important Italian bassoon and contrabassoon make during the early 20th century.
K. 17. Italian kettledrum dating back to the first quarter of the twentieth century. The boiler is made of hand-wrought copper with a diameter of mm. 700 on which a donkey skin is stretched. The support is made of iron and has at its bottom the three feet and the intonation screw from which two support orders consist of five arms respectively, which by anchoring the first to the boiler and the second to the tension of the skin, allow to vary the tension of the skin. The instrument is high overall mm. 831.
M. 22. Hunting cornett, English, in a single piece entirely made of silver. The slander and elegant instrument is 304mm (11.95”) long, including the small and finely turned mouthpiece.